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5<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
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7<head><!--#set var="title"        value="Analog and hybrid computers"
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11   --><!--#set var="prev"         value="early-computers.shtm"
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19    <!--#include virtual="/en/inc/head.inc.shtm" -->
20    <meta name="t29.SVN" content="$Id: analog.shtm 240 2011-04-18 18:57:56Z heribert $" />
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23<body>
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25<!--#echo encoding="none" var="heading" -->
26<div id="content">
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28    <h2><!--#echo var="title" --></h2>
29
30    <!-- Top paragraphs: Translation from 20.12.2008 -->
31
32    <p>Analog computers were used to compute mathematical, physical and
33    technical problems. They were especially capable of solving equations
34    containing variables that depend on time or differential equations.</p>
35
36    <p>Analog computers simulate the given problem by abstracting it to a
37    physical system which follows the same mathematical laws. This
38    system is "plugged together" on a patch-board by using electronical
39    networks which are situated in the computer's inner life (negators,
40    summing unit, integrator, multiplier, function generator, etc.). Unlike
41    digital ones, analog computers don't count but measure (input) parameters.
42    Thus an anlog computer does not even recognize the complexity of a
43    differential equation &ndash; it solves even non-linear ones where
44    there does not exist any approach very quickly by simply drawing the
45    graph of the solution. On the other hand, analog computers are not suitable for
46    solving literal equations and suitable for commercial calculations
47    not at all.</p>
48
49
50
51    <p>All systems that yield the same mathematical model are called analog
52    systems among one another, disregarding their technical or physical origins.
53    The quality of the analogy of a system depends on the accuracy of
54    both approximation and output. According to the price the available
55    analog computers at that time highly differed from each other.
56
57
58
59    <p>Among others, computer systems by Telefunken (1961-64) are installed. They drew awesome curves on a storage oscilloscope and xy plotter. They solved difficult problems quite quickly, but handing, programming (plug connections) and analysis is not easy.</p>
60
61
62
63    <!--alter Text: <p>Electronical analog computers solved mathematical
64    equations that represented electrical networks which you had to plug
65    ("programm") on the board. They were solved by the electrical simulation.
66    Results were not numbers, but graphs (curves) that can be plotted with a
67    writer or an oscilloscope.</p>-->
68
69
70
71    <h3>Heathkit Analog Computer H1</h3>
72
73    <div class="box center" style="margin-bottom: 0;">
74        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/heathkit-analog-computer.jpg" width="694" height="443" alt="Heathkit Analog Computer H1" />
75        <p>Heathkit, known for it's construction kits, developed an analog
76        computer in 1956 that was primary designed for education. This
77        monster has 70 tubes, whereas 45 were placed external due to better
78        cooling. It is equipped with 15 computing amplifiers.</p>
79
80    </div>
81
82
83
84    <div class="box left clear-after" style="margin-top: 0;">
85       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/heathkit-detail.jpg" alt=" Heathkit Analog Computers H1" width="400" height="277" class="nomargin-bottom"/>
86
87       <p class="bildtext">
88
89          It demonstrates archaic early technology from the first generation.
90          We have connected a compatible xy plotter equipped with tubes, too.
91          <br/>This device is a loan from the <a
92          href="http://www.fitg.de/fitg_english/">FITG (Association for the
93          promition of industrial and technological history)</a>.
94
95       </p>
96<p class="small">
97Excerpt from the original prospekt:<br>
98This is a highly flexible and accurate analog computer, designed to fill requirements not presently met by commercial computer. It is an instrument suitable for use as a design tool in industry and universities. An advanced “slide rule” which permits engineering or research personnel to electronically simulate equations or physical problems and save many hours of calculation or experimentation.....
99Because it is a kit, and the labor and overhead costs found in present day computers are eliminated, the Heath Computer can be obtained for use in situations where a computer was ruled out in the past because of cost.......</p>
100    </div>
101
102
103
104    <div class="box left clear-after">   
105
106        <h3>Heathkit Analog Computer EC-1</h3>
107
108        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/heathkit-ec1.jpg" width="400" height="252" alt="Heathkit EC-1" />
109
110        <p>This is a very small analog computer that was designed for
111           educational purpose. It was built since 1960 and was equipped
112           with only 17 tubes (whereas 5 were used for stabilisation of
113           voltage). With such a sparse equipment the device is just good
114           enough to yield the function of an analog computer &ndash; it is too
115           inexactly to be used for real computing.
116           <br/>This device costed around 1.900 DM (about 900 Euro/500US$) </p>
117
118    </div>
119
120
121    <div class="box right">
122
123        <h3>Telefunken RAT 700</h3>
124
125        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/telefunken_rat700.jpg" width="291" height="917" alt="Telefunken RAT 700" class="nomargin-bottom" />
126
127        <p class="bildtext">
128
129            The image shows the <b>Telefunkten RAT 700</b> in the bottom (first
130            model from 1961), above a part from the successor. On the new model
131            you can change the whole patch board and thus change prgorams quickly.
132            <br/>When it's running, you hear an undetermined buzzing (400 Hz), due
133            to the mechanical chopper that change direct voltage in alternating
134            voltage. That was the only chance to disable the disturbing termeratre
135            drift (Changing of the germanium transistor parameters). Principally,
136            direct voltage is amlified by using choppers still today, but of course
137            they are made with electronic components.
138
139        </p>
140
141    </div>
142
143    <div class="box center" style="margin-right: 291px">
144
145        <h3>GTE Analog Computer EA22</h3>
146
147        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/gte-analogrechner.jpg" width="312" height="346" title="GTE Analog computer EA22" />
148
149        <p>
150          It's quite remarkable that the EA22 from GTE looks like the Telefunken
151          computers. But unlike the competitive products, the GTE computer is
152          equipped with more computing amplifiers (22 units), has a much clearer
153          system design and is therefore much easier to maintain.
154          This analog computer was build in the early 1960s from the german
155          firm <u>G</u>oldmann <u>T</u>echnische <u>E</u>elektronik,
156          Ulm/Donau.
157
158        </p>
159
160    </div>
161    <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
162
163        <!-- Yay, strange layout... -->
164
165               
166
167    <h3>EAI 180 and EAI 185 digital-anlog computer</h3>
168
169     
170
171    <p><b>EAI 180</b> from "Electronic Associates Incorporated",
172
173       New Jersey, is a so called <b>hybrid computer</b>  (hybris [greek]: From twofold parentage), year of manufacture 1970. It contains the parts of an analoge computer and these from a digital computer. The device is equipped with IC's from the first generation (DTL-technology). The calculation circuit is plugged with cables on the front panel. The cycle time from the analoge part can be set to less than 10ms. With that parameter, an equation will be solved at least 100 times per second. So you can watch the output with a simple oscilloscope.<br><br>
174
175    </p>
176
177    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">   
178
179        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/eai180.jpg" width="545" height="435" alt="EAI 180 hybrid computer" />
180
181                <p class="bildtext"><b>EAI 180 hybrid computer</b></p>
182
183    </div>
184
185        <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
186
187        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/eai,185.jpg" width="545" height="535" style="float:none" alt="EAI 185 Hybridrechner" />
188
189                <p class="bildtext"><b>EAI 185 hyprid computer</b></p>
190
191        </div>
192
193        <p>
194        The EAI 185 is almost exactly the same as the EAI 180 (shown in the photo above). The
195        only difference is the stage of expansion &ndash; you will notice that the EAI 185 is
196        much more taller than the EAI 180.
197        They were both used in the applied physics and informatics of German Technical Universities.
198    </p>
199
200
201    <h3>Dornier DO 240 analog computer</h3>   
202
203    <div class="box left clear-after">
204
205         <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/do_240.jpg" alt="Dornier DO 240" width="424" height="412"/>
206         <p class="bildtext">
207
208             The analog computer DO 240, made by the German enterprise DORNIER, is a high precision device,
209             compared to the EAI hybrid computers, which were used almost only for education due to their
210             moderate precision.
211             It features very much elements in a highly compact case. Among others there are digital potentiometers
212             (gating pulse manually adjustable), a highly customizable digital clock generator (which uses
213             nixie tubes as a display), a digital counter, two function generators and many more.
214             This computer was built in the early 1970s and was priced at 80.000 DM (about 40.000 euro/dollar)
215
216         </p>
217
218    </div>
219
220        <h3>(Cylindrical) slide rules</h3>
221
222    <div class="box center">
223        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/rechenschieber.jpg"
224          alt="Slide rule (slipstick) and Cylindrical slide rule" width="694" height="161"/>
225
226    </div>
227
228    <p>
229        Last but not least a mechanical analog computer that was used up to
230        the 1970s for scientific calculations without hand and desk calculators.
231        <br/>The picture above displays a 1.8m long demo slide rule
232        made of wood (1950s) that was used in schools for students since the
233        10th grade. Compared to hand calculators, these analog computers
234        also had some advantages: Students could not give absurd computing
235        precisions, these "computers" were cheap and quite fast. The big
236        disadvantage was that adding and subtracting was not possible at all.
237        <br/>To get higher precisions in the 1920s, there was this
238        "Cylindrical slide rule". This 60cm NESTLER device can be compared
239        to an ordinary slide rule measuring 12.50m.
240        </p>
241
242
243
244</div><!-- end of content -->
245
246<!--#include virtual="/en/inc/menu.inc.shtm" -->
247</body>
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