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1<?php
2        $seiten_id = 'fruehe-computer';
3        $version = '$Id: early-computers.php 1388 2017-12-13 22:34:37Z heribert $';
4        $titel = 'Scientifical calculators and mini computers';
5       
6        require "../../lib/technikum29.php";
7?>
8
9<h2>Scientifical calculators and mini computers</h2>
10
11<h3 id="lpg21-en">Schoppe & Faeser:  LGP-21 (General Precision) </h3>
12       
13        <!-- Bild über ganze Breite (geht bei schmalen Monitoren ins Menü rein) -->
14        <!-- Implementierung dafür steht im common.css, Zeile 300ff. -->
15    <div class="box center" style="position:relative;">
16       <div style="position:absolute; top:0px;"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/lgp-21.jpg"  width="872" height="414" alt="LGP 21 Computeranlage" />
17</div>
18        <div style="height: 443px;">&nbsp;</div>
19                <p class="bildtext small">From left to right: magnetic tape drive, 1. LGP-21, Tally paper-tape-reader and punch, 2. Tally reader, two additional hard drives, 2. LGP-21, Flexowriter</p>
20               
21    </div>
22               
23                <p>This machine is particularly interesting in more than one way: 1) The hardware
24is extremely simple, 2) the machine already employs a bus system for
25interconnecting the various units. 3) The machine features a fixed disk which
26holds all registers as well as timing tracks. As the picture above shows we
27have two complete systems which simplifies troubleshooting and repair.<br>
28
29Citing from the original brochure (1964): "The LGP-21 is produced by Schoppe &
30Faeser as a licensee in Europe and is distributed by EUROCOMP GmbH."<br>
31
32The LGP-21 had been developed by Librascope, division GP1 (USA). This company
33once was one of the largest calculating machine manufacturers in the world.
34Starting in 1962 the LGP-21 was marketed in the USA by General Precision. The
35machine is a very small computer but was advertised as "The first complete
36program controlled digital computer for only $16,250 in the minimum
37configuration." This configuration consisted of the CPU and a Flexowriter only.
38This machine was the successor of the <a class="go" href="/en/computer/lgp30.php"><b>LGP-30</b></a> (1st generation, 1956, also build
39by Schoppe & Faeser in Germany as a licensed product). The LGP-21 is very rare
40- only about 100 machines were built in Germany. Even rarer is the magnetic
41tape unit of which only 5 known units were built. The machine in the museum has
42serial number 4.</p>
43
44<div class="box left clear-after">
45                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/tally-lochstreifenleser.jpg" width="603" height="241" alt="Tally Lochstreifenleser" />
46                <p class="bildtext small">The external memory of the LGP-21 are perforated papertapes, which are scanned mechanically of the Tally-tape reader. The magnetic tape drive and other external drives were added in the late 60s.</p></div>
47               
48<p>As external storage the LGP-21 employs a paper tape system using Tally
49papertape readers. The magnetic tape unit and two external disks with a
50capacity of about 8000 words each were added in the late 1960s.<br>
51
52A rotating disk serves as the machine's main memory and clock generator. It
53rotates with 1475 RPM and holds 4096 words of 32 bits each which equals 12 kB,
54a reasonable size back then.
55
56<div class="box left">
57<a  class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/lgp21-platte.jpg">LGP-21 disk drive
58                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/lgp21-platte.jpg" width="300" height="270" alt="LGP-21 disk drive" /></a>
59        </div>
60<br>
61The disk contains 64 data tracks, four timing tracks and tracks for three registers (accumulator, instruction register and
62counter register).
63The mean write density is about 10 Bit/mm (about 1/200th of
64today's disk drives).<br>
65The LGP-21 supports 23 different instructions - enough to program typical
66scientific applications.<br>
67
68Repairing the machine turned out to be quite a challenge. Having two machines
69of this type helps a lot.
70
71More information about this interesting and rare system will follow.</p>               
72
73
74       
75        <h3>Mini-Computers</h3><br>
76       
77        <header class="teaser seitenstart">
78        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/pdp-941x270.jpg" width="860"  height="245" >
79        </header>
80
81    <p>Today's kids think of the latest mobile devices when talking about "mini computers".
82           In contrast, in the 1960s and the early 70s, a computer was always huge (like our
83           <a href="univac9400.php">UNIVAC mainframe</a>), thus a 300kg computer was "mini".
84           Early computers are well worth seeing due to their enormous size and the nice
85           transparent auxillary devices.
86       <br />There is a very important computer family that finally lead to (today's)
87           personal computers: The development of the "Mini" computers from Digital Equipment
88           Corporation (DEC), series PDP-8 and PDP-12 (both 12-bit architecture). The museum
89           owns a complete production run from that devices: From the PDP-8 (also called
90           Classic-8), year of manufacture 1965 to the PDP-8a (1975, this one is less
91           important so it is located in the archive). PDP means Programmed Data Processor.
92        </p>
93        <div class="box left clear-after">
94        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/flip-chip-module.jpg" width="400" height="173" alt="Flip-Chip-Module" />
95                <p>The manuals of these computers are very detailed, with full circuit
96                   documentation. There never have been any other computer with such an
97                   elaborate documentation. For restoration purposes these manuals are
98                   indispensable. Even in those days, other manufacturers kept their
99                   blueprints in secret for fear of unauthorized re-use (e.g. HP).
100                 
101                </p>
102        </div>
103       
104        <p>For further reading see the story about <a class="go" name="backlink-dec"
105        href="/en/devices/dec-history.php">Rise and Fall of DIGITAL (Equipment Corporation)</a>.</p>
106
107    <h3 id="pdp8">Classic PDP-8</h3>
108        <div class="box left clear-after">
109                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8.jpg" width="400" height="560" alt="PDP 8 Classic" />
110                <img style="clear:left" src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8,pannel.jpg" width="400" height="300" alt="PDP-8 Bedienungspannel" />
111                <img style="clear:left" src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp8-fluegel.jpg" width="400" height="345" alt="PDP-8 Flügel" />
112       
113       
114                <p>PDP computers were especially used by scientists. By using self-made
115                   (CPU) interface boards, already existing (experimental) equipment could easily
116                   migrated to the new hardware. DEC even offered prefabricated boards to
117                   encourage own extension development.
118                   The figure above shows a typical second generation module (1965) without ICs
119                   from the classic PDP-8 on the left. In the middle is a smaller third generation
120                   module with ICs (from 1967) which was used in the PDP-8i, PDP-8L and PDP-12.
121                   On the right is an empty module just suitable for being equipped by the
122                   user for interfaces to own periphery.<br>
123
124       
125         One of the museum highlights: The complete PDP-8 system with processor,
126         a big tape deck TU-580 (originally belonged to the PDP-5, manufactured in 1963),
127         punch card reader/puncher PC-01, hard-disc DF-32 with immovable heads
128         and a teletype as printer. The Classic PDP-8 is considered the world's first mass-produced
129         "minicomputer". Due it's use of ICs, unlike its predecessors, it is considered
130                 a second-generation computer.
131        </p>
132                 
133                <p>This computer features various different logic and register modules. All logic
134                is only built with NAND and NOR gatters. Registers are constructed with flip-flop
135                circuits. The extensive wiring of the modules (see picture) is called
136                <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wire_wrap">Wire wrapping</a>. This kind of
137                connections were used in all bigger computers until the 1980s, since it is an
138                easy way to connect two points which are not mounted on the same board or on the
139                same level. In the early days this wiring was manually performed and later executed
140                by machines. Even today there are still some wire-wrap-connections in testing
141                environments.
142                <br>
143                The picture shows the uncovered computer with opened right wing where you can easily
144                see the wire-wrap connections.</p>
145       
146                <p class="small">Top: Complete PDP-8 system, <br/> center: console of the computer <br/> below: open computer, the right wing is extended. Here you can see the wire-wrap connections.<br><br>
147                The processor and the tape reader are on loan from the <a href="http://www.fitg.de"> "FITG"</a>, Frankfurt (Germany)</small>
148               
149                </div>
150         <!-- The <b>Classic PDP 8</b> from DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation, Massachusetts):
151         He is considered to be the world's first mass-produced "minicomputer" (1965). "Mini" is relative: Only too very
152         strong men can lift the computer. It is better to have four people to carry it!.
153         Without ICs or their ancestors the device is counted among the seccond-generation calculators.
154         <br/>You can also get a view from the "Flip-Chip"-card from the <a class="go" href="/en/devices/pdp-8-left-flank.php">left flank</a>
155         (<u>flank</u>). The core memory is set above (storage capacity 4kB).-->
156   
157   
158 
159  <h3 id="pdp8i">PDP-8I</h3>   
160       
161        <div class="box left">
162        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp8i.jpg" alt="DEC PDP-8I" width="400" height="666" />
163        </div>
164                <div class="box center">
165                <div class="center auto-bildbreite inline-block">
166                        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/8i-pannel.jpg" width="400" height="292" alt="PDP 8i operator panel" />
167                        <p class="bildtext small">Left: The PDP-8i system with two-DECtapes TU 55, hight-speed paper tape reader/punch
168                                PC 04, 563 CALCOM plotter (top) and a TELETYPE (not shown). Above: the computer console</p>
169                </div>
170        </div>
171     
172          <p>In 1967 the first series 74xx TTL ICs (transistor-transistor logic) came on the market.
173             DEC was at the bleeding edge, releasing the 8i ("with <b>i</b>ntegrated circuits"). No one
174                 knew about the stability of the new ICs (later bugs). Therefore UNIVAC used the well established
175                 DTL technology even two years after. Fortunately, the TTL ICs proved to be as stable as the DTL
176                 series. Since the integration degree was much higher, less space has been needed for computers.
177                 <br>DEC's first calculator with integrated circuits was very expensive. The CPU on alone
178                 (in the picture: Left case, middle) cost US$ 27,000 without peripherals at that time.
179         <br>The main memory had a capacity of 8kB. While computing a "large" problem, it was possible to swap
180         programs or data to files on magnetic tape and read in afterward be reread. DEC developed
181         an intelligent operating system (OS/8) which worked very efficiently with such little memory.
182         It is very interesting to watch this computer working.</p>
183         <p>If you have not been in the presence of this computer, you should know that it is quite large.
184         With the plotter, it stands at a height of almost 7' (2m) and weighting at more than 600 lbs (300kg).</p>
185         <p>The peripherals consist of two TU-55 (tape drives), a PC-04 (high speed paper tape reader),
186         Calcomp 563 plotter (at the top) and of course a teletype (not pictured).
187        </p>
188
189                 
190        <h3 id="pdp8L">PDP-8L</h3>
191        <br>
192        <div class="box desc-left borderless">
193                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8L.jpg" width="400" height="360" alt="DEC PDP-8L" />
194                <p class="small">PDP-8L (build in 1968) with HSR Paper Tape Reader</p>
195        </div>
196        <div class="box clear-after">
197                <p>Many DEC customers did not need the high memory capacity or installable options.
198                Therefore DEC developed the stripped-down computer PDP 8L (<b>L</b>ow-cost) with
199                only a few pre-wired installed options in the lower price range.
200                The core memory had only 4kB capacity, it was extendable to 8kB with an external cabinet.
201                <br>Our PDP-8L has many extensions: HSR (High Speed) paper tape reader, TC01 Tape Control
202                with two drives TU55 and additional memory.
203                <br>DEC invented the interpreted programming language <b>FOCAL</b> (Formulating Online
204                Calculations in Algebraic Language), which allowed the user an interactive
205                programming environment (like a Unix shell). This language is similar to BASIC, but
206                slightly simpler. FOCAL required no operating system and ran smoothly with 4kB core
207                memory and lacking mass storage.
208        </div>
209 
210
211 <h3 id="pdp12">PDP-12, LAB-12</h3>
212 <div class="box left">
213      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12.jpg" width="400" height="485" alt="DEC LAB-12" />
214 </div>
215 <div class="box center" style="min-width: 840px;">
216          <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12-konsole.jpg" width="400" height="256" alt="LAB-12 Bedienungspannel" />
217 </div>
218 
219                        <p>The PDP-12 was released in 1969. Just 755 units were sold worldwide. It was the last series that
220                        could operate in LINC-Mode (it could be switched to either LINC
221                        or PDP-8 Mode). This is a laboratory computer, equipped with AD and DA
222                        converter as standard. Such computers were usually kept up to date
223                        with hardware updates. The memory of this device was gradually
224                        increased from 8kB up to 32kB (DW 08E storage extension).
225                        <br>Besides the tape drives, the computer was also equipped with
226                        an 8-inch floppy drive. Afterwards they were removed again in
227                        favor of two removable disk drives. Finally they even tied the
228                        device to 10BASE-T ethernet, using a selfmade controller with an
229                        handwritten TCP/IP stack on a selfmade operating system.
230                        Thus this device can demonstrate the era from paper tapes up to
231                        today's storage standard.<br>
232                        Check out the console in a large scale:
233<a class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/konsole,dunkel.jpg">PDP-12 console (dark picture)</a> 
234or: <a  class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/konsole,hell.jpg">PDP-12 console (ligh picture)</a>
235                        </p>
236               
237        <div class="desc-right borderless">
238      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12-innen.jpg" width="297" height="676" alt="DEC LAB-12-Flip-Chips" />
239          <p class="small">The picture on the left shows the PDP-12 inner life with all 462 Flip-Chip-Boards.</p>
240        </div>
241
242        <p>By having all the following options, our computer was very comfortable
243        (the number in parentheses indicates the number of neccessary boards):</p>
244
245        <dl>
246                <dt>AD12 [A-D-Control] (12 modules):
247                <dd>The AD12 includes 16 channels of input, 10bit output resolution and features
248                    up to 60kHz signals at 30dB down.
249               
250                <dt>DM12 [Data Break Multiplexer for KF12-B] (6 modules):
251                <dd>The DM12 provides the capability of operating up to three data break devices.
252                    The Data Break facility allows an I/O device to transfer information directly
253                        with the PDP-12 core memory on a cycle-stealing basis. This is particulary
254                        well suited for high-speed devices which transfer large amounts of information
255                        in block form. Peripheral I/O equipment  could reach a maximum transfer rate
256                        of 6,5 Mbit/sec.
257               
258                <dt>DP12A [TTY-Dataphone] (4 modules):
259                <dd>The DP12 options permit interfacing additional Teletypes and Modems. They are
260                    capable of accepting data asynchronously up to 100,000 baud. The units are
261                        designed for US-ASCII and meet the EIA-standard (RS232) requirements.
262               
263                <dt>DR12 [Relays and Control] (1 module):
264                <dd>The relay buffer is a six-bit register connected to six relays that are mounted
265                    on the data terminal panel. They can be used for controlling experiments or
266                        external equipment not otherwise directly interfaced with the PDP-12 Computer.
267                        The states of the relays can be examinede at any time via the register.
268               
269                <dt>KE12 [Extended Arithmetik Element] (14 modules):
270                <dd>The EAE enables the CP (the DEC operating system) to perform arithmetic
271                    operations at higher speed. The ALU is extended by asynchronous logic such as a
272                        12-bit Multiplier Quotient Register and a 5-bit Step Counter.  These components
273                        are used by auxillary CPU instructions (opcodes).
274                       
275                <dt>KF12 [Multi Level] (54 modules):
276                <dd>The Multi-Level Automatic Priority Interrupt is designed to reduce the CPU
277                    overhead during the servicing of program interrupts. Up to 15 levels of interrupts
278                        can be accomodated with each level having an unique vector address. The interrupts
279                        can be accepted from other options (CPU extensions) or from up to six external
280                        devices. Storing of priority and vectoring of interrupt service routines is
281                        performed with a Stack.
282                       
283                <dt>KT12 [Time-Sharing Option] (2 modules):
284                <dd>This module provides the additional logic circuits required for the PDP12 Time
285                    Sharing System. Having satisfied the minimum equipment, it perimts up to 16 users
286                        to operate their individual programs in an apperantly simultaneous manner. The
287                        system is controlled by a group of subprograms called "TSS/12 Monitor".
288                       
289                <dt>KW12-A [Real Time Clock] (19 modules):
290                <dd>The RTC can be used to generate Program Interrupts over a range of intervals of
291                    2.5us to 40.96s; detect external and internal events in order to count them,
292                        measure them against a time base, measure the interval between them, use them as
293                        time base standard or control sample times of A/D conversions. In our system
294                        this module was used to connect the german longwave time signal radio station
295                        DCF77 in order to recieve the atomic clock time from the German master clocks
296                        in Frankfurt.
297        </dl>
298       
299        <p>The computer is equipped with further cabinets which allow much more peripherals:</p>
300       
301        <div class="desc-right no-copyright borderless">
302       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12anwendung.jpg" width="400" height="366" alt="Typical PDP-12 in scientific environment" />
303           <p class="bildtext small">Typical picture in the 1970s: PDP-12 in the scientific domain. [Source: "digital products and applications, 1971"]</p>
304        </div>
305       
306        <dl>
307                <dt>AA50P [12 Bit DAC Controller]
308                <dd>Cabinet to upgrade the number of digital-analog converters (half filled in our setup)
309               
310                <dt>BA12 [Peripharal Expander]
311                <dd>Cabinet for peripheral extension, e.g. paper tape reader/puncher, PC05, card
312                    readers, etc.
313               
314                <dt>DW08A [I/O Bus Converter]
315                <dd>Cabinet to connect "negative bus system" units. The "negative logic level" was used
316                    at the time of germanium transistors (PNP), for example the DF32 disk drive with
317                        fixed heads.
318
319                <dt>DW08E [I/O Bus Converter]
320                <dd>This plug-in for the smaller PDP-8e converts the PDP-8, -8i and -12 bus to the
321                    OMNIBUS system from the PDP-8e. Thus all 8e interfaces could be connected, e.g. the
322                        RK8E interface (Digitl RK05) or Plessey PM DD/8 disk drives.
323               
324                <dt>BM812 [Memory Expansion Box]
325                <dd>Memory expansion box that is capable of expending either a PDP8i or PDP12
326                    from 8kB to 32kB with MM8e-stacks (like in the PDP-8e).
327        </dl>
328       
329        <div class="desc-left auto-bildbreite borderless" style="margin-bottom: 0;">
330      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/talk-to-me.jpg" width="163" height="209" alt="Demo-12 Demoprogramm" />
331          <p class="bildtext small">So logs the PDP-12-demo program</p>
332        </div>
333       
334        <p>This system is fully developed. This was a common approach at that time: At first the
335           computer was purchased in the basic version which was barely affordable. Afterwards
336           more options were installed step-by-step. That way the enormous acquisition costs
337           were distributed over several years and the computer was always up to date.<br>
338           We have very good programs [Demo-12 running on DIAL], which shows with extreme illustrative the performance of the computer. This includes an on-screen analog clock with real-time display and the game
339"SPACE WAR". Some of will be soon available on our special page [in working].
340    </p>
341        <div class="cols" style="clear:left;">
342        <div class="leftcol">
343        <p class="small">(Google-translation!):We have a PDP-12 price list from the year 1973, a period in which the PDP-12 was already an outdated model. Our fully-equipped computer was a PDP-12 LDP (Laboratory Data Processor), here specifically a "clinical lab12", sold at a price of DM 206.700. Most of the options listed above were built in. (In 1973 3,50DM corresponds to 1$).<br>
344        This computer was equipped with 4kB Memory Core. So one needs in adition a "Memory Extension Control" for 16.600 DM and a 4kB Memory Module for 25.100 DM. The price for the unimposing Peripheral Expander BA12 was 5.400 DM (equivalent to a midsize car) and "High-Speed Paper Tape Reader/Punch" incredible 16.200 DM.</div>
345        <div class="rightcol">
346        <p class="small">
347
348        A Disk Cartridge Drive RK05 where sold for DM 21.200, where one needs in addition the "Positive I/O Bus to Omnibus Converter" DW8E (6750 DM). Similarly is the Converter DW08A and the Cabinet AA50 for additional D/A Controller. The 3 plugged D/A modules were calculated with 1.680 DM per unit.
349        The memory expansion to 32K does not appear on the list, but the price for this option was about 50.000 DM including the controller.<br>
350
351        In the sum it is a staggering number of 387.690 DM, which is today corresponding about 500,000 Euro or 600.000 $!</p>
352</small>
353</div>
354</div>
355<div class="clear">
356</div>
357
358         <h3 id="lab8e">Lab-8e, PDP-8e</h3>
359        <div class="box left">
360                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/lab8e.jpg" width="400" height="461" alt="DEC LAB-8e" />
361        </div>
362        <div class="box center" style="min-width: 840px;">
363                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8e,pannel.jpg" width="400" height="300" alt="PDP-8e operator panel" />
364        </div>
365    <div class="bildtext">
366            <p>The successor of the PDP-8i was the PDP-8e (1970). This computer came with an
367             internal bus system, so you could easily attach any peripherals using interface cards. This
368             feature made the "mini"-computer all-purpose. This computer type was offered with diverse
369             A/D- and D/A-converters and connection facilities as a laboratory computer for analogue
370             devices (shown in the picture). The peripherals are:</p>
371            <ul>
372                <li>VR 12 (oscilloscope display)</li>
373                <li>PC 04 (High speed paper tape reader/puncher)</li>
374                <li>3 x TU 56 (double tape drive)</li>
375                <li>A/D- and D/A-converter</li>
376            </ul>
377        </div>
378    <div class="box left clear-after">
379                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/8e-module.jpg" alt="8e-Module" width="400" height="175"/>
380                <p>The picture on the left shows a board for own peripheral interfaces. In this unit,
381                   bus amplifiers, etc. are already mounted. You could install your own ICs in front of
382                   them and connect them with Wire-Wrap or soldered wires.
383                   On the right is a typical module with a lot of ICs. Both modules are only partially
384                   visible.
385                </p>
386    </div>
387       
388       
389 <h3 id="nova-en">Data General: NOVA 2</h3>
390   
391   <div class="box left">
392      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/nova2.jpg" width="400" height="561" alt="Data General: NOVA 2" />
393<p>     Edson de Castro was responsible for product management at DEC and was intent
394on developing a 16-bit computer with a processor that would fit on a single
395printed circuit board. But Ken Olson, the founder of DEC, wasn't
396supportive. So de Castro left DEC in 1968 together with three other
397hardware engineers to found his own company in a vacant barber's shop:
398<b>Data General Corporation </b>(Massachusetts, USA).<br>
399
400Already in 1969 the first 16-bit computer in the <b>"NOVA" </b>series was ready
401for the market. Thanks to the simpler production method (no wire wrapping,
402only two boards + memory boards etc.) the basic version was quite inexpensive
403at $4000. However, this basic model alone wasn't really that useful, and
404after extending the computer the total price was substantially higher.
405The Nova computer was advertised as "the best small computer in the world".
406At this time, DEC was still building the PDP-8/I and the PDP-12, which
407required lots of very small flip-chip-modules. <br>
408
409The successor model (available in 1973), the<b> NOVA 2</b>, was simplified even
410further, and the increased chip density made it possible to have the whole
411processor together with the control logic for slow peripheral devices
412(teletype, paper tape puncher and reader) one single board. Our Nova is a
413NOVA 2/10 model with slots for 10 boards, and therefore enough space for
414quite a few device controllers and memory extensions.<br>
415
416
417From today's perspective, the rather huge boards (15x15 inch,
418nicknamed "circuit graveyards in baking tray size") do have disadvantages:
419any kind of repair is very difficult, because it is not possible to pin down
420a malfunction by exchanging small boards.<br>
421
422The NOVA shown in the picture is from a university. It is equipped with
423two harddisk drives, one twin floppy drive (8" disks!), one teletype,
424one high-speed paper tape punch reader and one punch card reader (not in
425the picture). Later on a terminal was added, which extended the computer
426to a comfortably usable system.</p>
427
428The details are better visible in a larger photo: <a  class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/nova-detail.jpg">NOVA 2 with terminal</a><br>
429
430          <p class="bildtext small">
431Hardware configuration, from top to bottom:<br>
432<dl>
433
434<dd>Paper tape punch reader (mostly used for testing programs included with
435  every delivered system)
436<dd>Twin disk drive for 8-inch floppy disks, Model 6032
437<dd>CPU with core memory, 32 KB, access time 0.8 us
438<dd>Two hard-disk drives with removable cartridges, Series 30. Capacity
439  1.200.000 16-bit words, or 2.4 MB.
440<dd>Disk Cartridge System 4047, necessary to connect the second disk
441<dd>Terminal "DASHER 1", Model 6052 by Data General, on the right hand side
442</dl></small>     
443 </div>
444 
445 
446    <h3 id="wang2200">WANG 2200 with bulky peripheral hardware</h3>
447    <p>Next, the first system that looks like today's computer is presented: <a class="go" href="/en/devices/wang2200.php">WANG 2200</a>, year of manufacture 1973. This computer, with so many peripheral devices, is probably unique in Germany. The peripherals: paper tape reader, punch card reader,  triple 8-inch disc drive, hard disc system with 38cm diameter disks (the device weights 100kg and cost 24000 DM, but only holdy 5MB), special BASIC-language keyboard, etc.</p>
448    <p>WANG quickly recognized that the future of computers needed screens. However the concurrent HP
449    computers had only a single-line LED display until 1975.</p>
450
451    <div class="box center">
452       <a href="/en/devices/wang2200.php" name="backlink-wang2200"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/wang2200.jpg" width="592" height="402" alt="Wang 2200" /></a>
453    </div>
454
455    <p>One of the first personal computer was also build by WANG: the PCS II (1975). The first PC that was affordable for everybody was the PET 2001 from Commodore. It came on the market in 1977 and was as cheap as today's PCs, but had 8kB and had decent applications. Many more home computers followed, the market got out of hand and therewith this collection of computers ends.</p>
456     
457    <p> See further details at <br>
458         <a class="go" href="/en/details2.php" title="Details 2"> the tabular overview of
459     mid range data processing equipment and proffessional early computers</a>.</p>
460
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