source: t29-www/en/computer/early-computers.shtm @ 199

Last change on this file since 199 was 199, checked in by heribert, 12 years ago

DEC-Rechner (Fruehe/Wissenschaftliche Computer)

  • PDP-12 hinzugekommen
  • Notation von "PDP x" auf "PDP-x"
  • Kleinigkeiten
  • Property svn:keywords set to Id
File size: 7.9 KB
1<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
2     "">
3<html xmlns="" xml:lang="en">
4<head><!--#set var="title"        value="Scientifical calculators and mini computers"
5   --><!--#set var="location"     value="fruehe-computer"
6   --><!--#set var="part"         value="computer"
7   --><!--#set var="url_de"       value="rechnertechnik/fruehe-computer.shtm"
8   --><!--#set var="prev"         value="commercial.shtm"
9   --><!--#set var="prev_title"   value="Early commercial computers"
10   --><!--#set var="next"         value="analog.shtm"
11   --><!--#set var="next_title"   value="Analog and hybrid computers"
12 --><title>technikum29 - <!--#echo var="title" --></title>
14    <!--#include virtual="/en/inc/" -->
15    <meta name="keywords" lang="en" content="technikum29, early computers, DEC PDP, WANG 2200" />
16    <meta name="t29.SVN" content="$Id: early-computers.shtm 199 2010-10-10 23:37:13Z heribert $" />
19<!--#echo encoding="none" var="heading" -->
20<div id="content">
21    <h2><!--#echo var="title" --></h2>
23    <p>Today's kids think of the latest mobile devices when talking about "mini computers". In contrast, in the 1960s and the early 70s, a computer was always huge (like our <a href="univac9400.shtm">UNIVAC mainframe</a>), thus a 300kg computer was "mini". Early computers are well worth seeing due to their enormous size and the nice transparent auxillary devices.
24       <br />There is a very important computer family that finally lead to today's (personal) computers: The development of the "Mini" computers from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), series PDP-8. The museum owns a complete production run from that devices: From the PDP-8 (also called Classic-8), year of manufacture 1965 to the PDP-8a (1975, this one is less important so it is located in the archive).
25           <br/>For further reading see the story about <a class="go" name="backlink-dec" href="/en/devices/dec-history.shtm">Rise and Fall of DIGITAL (Equipment Corporation)</a>.
26        </p>
28    <!--alter Text: The legendary Classic PDP 8 from the company DEC (year of manufacture 1965) can be admired among others. Furthermore you can see the PDP 8L or <a class="go" href="/en/devices/pdp_8I.shtm">PDP 8I</a> (year of manufacture 1967, a lot of periphery) and the laboratory computer <a class="go" href="/en/devices/lab_8e.shtm">LAB8e</a> (1971).
29    Because of constantly growing claims for storage capacity, backing storage (19-zoll drawers for 4kB with a weight of 20kg) was offered. The PDP 8I could not administrate more than 32kB.
30    <br />THe PDP 8L, a trimmed-down version of the PDP 8I, cannot hold more than 8 kB.</p> -->
32        <h3>Classic PDP-8</h3>
33    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
34       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/classic8,594px.jpg" width="594" height="704" alt="PDP 8 Classic" />
35       <p class="bildtext"><b>PDP-8</b> with tape deck TU 580, paper tape reader and hard disc</p>
36        </div>
38        <p>
39         One of the museal highlights: The complete PDP-8 system with processor,
40         big tape deck TU 580 (originally belongs to the PDP-5, year of manufacture
41         1963), punch card reader/puncher PC 01, hard disc DF 32 with immovable heads
42         and a teletype as printer. The Classic PDP-8 is called the world's first mass-produced
43         "minicomputer". Without ICs or their ancestor it is a seccond-generation apparature.
44         <!-- The <b>Classic PDP 8</b> from DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation, Massachusetts):
45         He is considered to be the world's first mass-produced "minicomputer" (1965). "Mini" is relative: Only too very
46         strong men can lift the computer. It is better to have four people to carry it!.
47         Without ICs or their ancestors the device is counted among the seccond-generation calculators.
48         <br/>You can also get a view from the "Flip-Chip"-card from the <a class="go" href="/en/devices/pdp-8-left-flank.shtm">left flank</a>
49         (<u>flank</u>). The core memory is set above (storage capacity 4kB).-->
50    </p>
52    <div class="box left clear-after">
53        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp8i.jpg" alt="DEC PDP 8I" width="400" height="666" />
54        <div class="bildtext">
55            <h3>PDP-8I</h3>
56            <p>DEC's first calculator with integrated circuits was not cheap. The CPU on
57             its own (in the middle of the picture) without periphery costed 27000$ at that time.<br/>
58             The main memory had a capacity of 8kB. While calculating a "bigger" problem, possibly some files
59             (programs, data) had to be swapped on a (magnetic) tape and read in afterwards. DEC developed
60             a very intelligent operating system (OS/8) which could work very efficiently with such few memory.
61             It is very interesting to watch this computer working.</p>
62            <p>If you have not yet seen such a computer, you should know that it is more than 2m high (with
63             plotter) and has a weight of more than 300 kg.</p>
64            <p>The periphery constists of 2 x TU 55 (tape drives), PC 04 (high speed paper tape reader),
65             Calcomp 563 plotter (at the top) and of course a teletype (not in the picture).</p>
66        </div>
67    </div>
69    <div class="box left clear-after">
70        <a href="/en/devices/lab_8e.shtm" name="lab8e"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/lab8e.jpg" width="400" height="461" alt="LAB 8e" class="nomargin-bottom" /></a>
71        <!-- other picture -->
72        <div  class="bildtext">
73            <h3>Lab-8e, PDP-8e</h3>
74            <p>Successor of the PDP-8i was the PDP-8e (1970). This computer had already an
75             internal bus system. So you could easily attach any periphery with interface cards. This
76             feature made the "Mini"computer all-purpose. This Computer type was offered with diverse
77             A/D- and D/A-converters and connection facilities as laboratory computer for analogue
78             devices (shown in the picture). The periphery is:</p>
79            <ul>
80                <li>VR 12 (oscilloscope display)</li>
81                <li>PC 04 (High speed paper tape reader/puncher)</li>
82                <li>3 x TU 56 (double tape drive)</li>
83                <li>A/D- and D/A-converter</li>
84            </ul>
85        </div>
86    </div>
88    <h3>WANG 2200 with bulky peripheral hardware</h3>
89    <p>Furthermore the first system that looks like a today's computer is connected: <a class="go" href="/en/devices/wang2200.shtm">WANG 2200</a>, year of manufacture 1973. The computer with so much peripheral devices is propably unique in Germany. The periphery: paper tape reader, reader for stacked cards, 8-inch triple disc drive, disc system with 38cm big disks (the device has a weight of 100kg and costed 24.000,- DM whereas it only saved 5MB), special basic-keyboard, etc.</p>
90    <p>WANG quickly recognized that the future of computers needed screens. However the concurrent HP built his
91    computers only with a single LED display until 1975.</p>
93    <div class="box center">
94       <a href="/en/devices/wang2200.shtm" name="backlink-wang2200"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/wang2200_komplettanlage.jpg" width="474" height="325" alt="Wang 2200" /></a>
95    </div>
97    <p>The first personal computer was also build by WANG: PCS II (1975). The first PC that was affordable for everybody was the PET 2001 from Commodore. It came on the market in 1977 and was as cheap as a today's PC but saved 8kB and had decent applications. Many more Homepcomputer followed, the market got out of hand and therewith the collection of computers ends.</p>
99     <p>See further details at <a class="go" href="/en/details2.shtm" title="Details 2">the tabular overview of
100     mid range data processing equipment and proffessional early computers</a>.</p>
104<!-- end of content -->
105<!--#include virtual="/en/inc/" -->
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.
© 2008 - 2013 technikum29 • Sven Köppel • Some rights reserved
Powered by Trac
Expect where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons 3.0 License