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24<h3 id="lpg21-en">Schoppe & Faeser:  LGP-21 (General Precision) </h3>
26        <!-- Bild über ganze Breite (geht bei schmalen Monitoren ins Menü rein) -->
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28    <div class="box center" style="position:relative;">
29       <div style="position:absolute; top:0px;"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/lgp-21.jpg" width="967" height="443" alt="LGP 21 Computeranlage" />
31        <div style="height: 443px;">&nbsp;</div>
32                <p class="bildtext small">From left to right: magnetic tape drive, 1. LGP-21, Tally paper-tape-reader and punch, 2. Tally reader, two additional hard drives, 2. LGP-21, Flexowriter</p>
34    </div>
36                <p>The <b>LPG21</b> computer by General Precision was released and licensed in the
37USA in 1962. Paying royalities, the german company "Schoppe & Faser"
38copied this computer with a new frontend design, calling it <b>"EUROCOMP"</b>
40 It's a very small mainframe, advertised as the "first
41full-capability computer priced from $ 16,250". Of course this price was
42only offered for the bare CPU. Including the minimal equipment
43(flexowriter, tape reader and puncher) the overall price was about $ 30,000.<br>
45<div class="box left clear-after">
46                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/tally-lochstreifenleser.jpg" width="603" height="241" alt="Tally Lochstreifenleser" />
47                <p class="bildtext small">The external memory of the LGP-21 are perforated papertapes, which are scanned mechanically of the Tally-tape reader. The magnetic tape drive and other external drives were added in the late 60s.</p></div>
49The (rotating) disc (with fixed heads) is used as storage and clock
50generator. Our installation, as shown above, features a lot of
51periphery: A magnetic tape station (1/4" tapes), paper tape
52reader/puncher, an additional hard disc and a flexowriter (printer and
53manual tape puncher for data/programs).<br>
54Once again, the reperation will be a challenge. More information will be
55disclosed later.</p>
58        <h3>Mini-Computers</h3>
60    <p>Today's kids think of the latest mobile devices when talking about "mini computers".
61           In contrast, in the 1960s and the early 70s, a computer was always huge (like our
62           <a href="univac9400.shtm">UNIVAC mainframe</a>), thus a 300kg computer was "mini".
63           Early computers are well worth seeing due to their enormous size and the nice
64           transparent auxillary devices.
65       <br />There is a very important computer family that finally lead to (today's)
66           personal computers: The development of the "Mini" computers from Digital Equipment
67           Corporation (DEC), series PDP-8 and PDP-12 (both 12-bit architecture). The museum
68           owns a complete production run from that devices: From the PDP-8 (also called
69           Classic-8), year of manufacture 1965 to the PDP-8a (1975, this one is less
70           important so it is located in the archive). PDP means Programmed Data Processor.
71        </p>
72        <div class="box left clear-after">
73        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/flip-chip-module.jpg" width="400" height="173" alt="Flip-Chip-Module" />
74                <p>The manuals of these computers are very detailed, with full circuit
75                   documentation. There never have been any other computer with such an
76                   elaborate documentation. For restoration purposes these manuals are
77                   indispensable. Even in those days, other manufacturers kept their
78                   blueprints in secret for fear of unauthorized re-use (e.g. HP).
80                </p>
81        </div>
83        <p>For further reading see the story about <a class="go" name="backlink-dec"
84        href="/en/devices/dec-history.shtm">Rise and Fall of DIGITAL (Equipment Corporation)</a>.</p>
86    <!--alter Text: The legendary Classic PDP 8 from the company DEC (year of manufacture 1965) can be admired among others. Furthermore you can see the PDP 8L or <a class="go" href="/en/devices/pdp_8I.shtm">PDP 8I</a> (year of manufacture 1967, a lot of periphery) and the laboratory computer <a class="go" href="/en/devices/lab_8e.shtm">LAB8e</a> (1971).
87    Because of constantly growing claims for storage capacity, backing storage (19-zoll drawers for 4kB with a weight of 20kg) was offered. The PDP 8I could not administrate more than 32kB.
88    <br />THe PDP 8L, a trimmed-down version of the PDP 8I, cannot hold more than 8 kB.</p> -->
90    <h3>Classic PDP-8</h3>
91        <div class="box left clear-after">
92                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8.jpg" width="400" height="474" alt="PDP 8 Classic" />
93                <img style="clear:left" src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8,pannel.jpg" width="400" height="300" alt="PDP-8 Bedienungspannel" />
94                <img style="clear:left" src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp8-fluegel.jpg" width="400" height="345" alt="PDP-8 Flügel" />
97                <p>PDP computers were especially used by scientists. By using self-made
98                   (CPU) interface boards, already existing (experimental) equipment could easily
99                   migrated to the new hardware. DEC even offered prefabricated boards to
100                   encourage own extension development.
101                   The figure above shows a typical second generation module (1965) without ICs
102                   from the classic PDP-8 on the left. In the middle is a smaller third generation
103                   module with ICs (from 1967) which was used in the PDP-8i, PDP-8L and PDP-12.
104                   On the right is an empty module just suitable for being equipped by the
105                   user for interfaces to own periphery.<br>
108         One of the museum highlights: The complete PDP-8 system with processor,
109         a big tape deck TU-580 (originally belonged to the PDP-5, manufactured in 1963),
110         punch card reader/puncher PC-01, hard-disc DF-32 with immovable heads
111         and a teletype as printer. The Classic PDP-8 is considered the world's first mass-produced
112         "minicomputer". Due it's use of ICs, unlike its predecessors, it is considered
113                 a second-generation computer.
114        </p>
116                <p>This computer features various different logic and register modules. All logic
117                is only built with NAND and NOR gatters. Registers are constructed with flip-flop
118                circuits. The extensive wiring of the modules (see picture) is called
119                <a href="">Wire wrapping</a>. This kind of
120                connections were used in all bigger computers until the 1980s, since it is an
121                easy way to connect two points which are not mounted on the same board or on the
122                same level. In the early days this wiring was manually performed and later executed
123                by machines. Even today there are still some wire-wrap-connections in testing
124                environments.
125                <br>
126                The picture shows the uncovered computer with opened right wing where you can easily
127                see the wire-wrap connections.</p>
129                <p class="small">Top: Complete PDP-8 system, <br/> center: console of the computer <br/> below: open computer, the right wing is extended. Here you can see the wire-wrap connections.<br><br>
130                The processor and the tape reader are on loan from the <a href=""> "FITG"</a>, Frankfurt (Germany)</small>
132                </div>
133         <!-- The <b>Classic PDP 8</b> from DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation, Massachusetts):
134         He is considered to be the world's first mass-produced "minicomputer" (1965). "Mini" is relative: Only too very
135         strong men can lift the computer. It is better to have four people to carry it!.
136         Without ICs or their ancestors the device is counted among the seccond-generation calculators.
137         <br/>You can also get a view from the "Flip-Chip"-card from the <a class="go" href="/en/devices/pdp-8-left-flank.shtm">left flank</a>
138         (<u>flank</u>). The core memory is set above (storage capacity 4kB).-->
142  <h3>PDP-8I</h3>
143    <div class="box left">
144        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp8i.jpg" alt="DEC PDP-8I" width="400" height="666" />
145        </div>
146        <div style="margin-left:400px; min-width: 450px;">
147                <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
148                        <img style="float:none" src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/8i-pannel.jpg" width="400" height="292" alt="PDP 8i operator panel" />
149                        <p class="bildtext small">Left: The PDP-8i system with two-DECtapes TU 55, hight-speed paper tape reader/punch
150                                PC 04, 563 CALCOM plotter (top) and a TELETYPE (not shown). Above: the computer console</p>
151                </div>
152        </div>
154          <p>In 1967 the first series 74xx TTL ICs (transistor-transistor logic) came on the market.
155             DEC was at the bleeding edge, releasing the 8i ("with <b>i</b>ntegrated circuits"). No one
156                 knew about the stability of the new ICs (later bugs). Therefore UNIVAC used the well established
157                 DTL technology even two years after. Fortunately, the TTL ICs proved to be as stable as the DTL
158                 series. Since the integration degree was much higher, less space has been needed for computers.
159                 <br>DEC's first calculator with integrated circuits was very expensive. The CPU on alone
160                 (in the picture: Left case, middle) cost US$ 27,000 without peripherals at that time.
161         <br>The main memory had a capacity of 8kB. While computing a "large" problem, it was possible to swap
162         programs or data to files on magnetic tape and read in afterward be reread. DEC developed
163         an intelligent operating system (OS/8) which worked very efficiently with such little memory.
164         It is very interesting to watch this computer working.</p>
165         <p>If you have not been in the presence of this computer, you should know that it is quite large.
166         With the plotter, it stands at a height of almost 7' (2m) and weighting at more than 600 lbs (300kg).</p>
167         <p>The peripherals consist of two TU-55 (tape drives), a PC-04 (high speed paper tape reader),
168         Calcomp 563 plotter (at the top) and of course a teletype (not pictured).
169        </p>
172        <h3 id="pdp8L">PDP-8L</h3>
173        <div class="box desc-left borderless">
174                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8L.jpg" width="400" height="360" alt="DEC PDP-8L" />
175                <p class="small">PDP-8L (build in 1968) with HSR Paper Tape Reader</p>
176        </div>
177        <div class="box clear-after">
178                <p>Many DEC customers did not need the high memory capacity or installable options.
179                Therefore DEC developed the stripped-down computer PDP 8L (<b>L</b>ow-cost) with
180                only a few pre-wired installed options in the lower price range.
181                The core memory had only 4kB capacity, it was extendable to 8kB with an external cabinet.
182                <br>Our PDP-8L has many extensions: HSR (High Speed) paper tape reader, TC01 Tape Control
183                with two drives TU55 and additional memory.
184                <br>DEC invented the interpreted programming language <b>FOCAL</b> (Formulating Online
185                Calculations in Algebraic Language), which allowed the user an interactive
186                programming environment (like a Unix shell). This language is similar to BASIC, but
187                slightly simpler. FOCAL required no operating system and ran smoothly with 4kB core
188                memory and lacking mass storage.
189        </div>
192 <h3 id="pdp12">PDP-12, LAB-12</h3>
193 <div class="box left">
194      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12.jpg" width="400" height="485" alt="DEC LAB-12" />
195 </div>
196 <div class="box center" style="min-width: 840px;">
197          <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12-konsole.jpg" width="400" height="256" alt="LAB-12 Bedienungspannel" />
198 </div>
200                        <p>The PDP-12 was released in 1969. Just 755 units were sold worldwide. It was the last series that
201                        could operate in LINC-Mode (it could be switched to either LINC-8
202                        or PDP-8). This is a laboratory computer, equipped with AD and DA
203                        converter as standard. Such computers were usually kept up to date
204                        with hardware updates. The memory of this device was gradually
205                        increased from 8kB up to 32kB (DW 08E storage extension).
206                        <br>Besides the tape drives, the computer was also equipped with
207                        an 8-inch floppy drive. Afterwards they were removed again in
208                        favor of two removable disk drives. Finally they even tied the
209                        device to 10BASE-T ethernet, using a selfmade controller with an
210                        handwritten TCP/IP stack on a selfmade operating system.
211                        Thus this device can demonstrate the era from paper tapes up to
212                        today's storage standard.<br>
213                        Check out the console in a large scale:
214<a class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/konsole,dunkel.jpg">PDP-12 console (dark picture)</a> 
215or: <a  class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/konsole,hell.jpg">PDP-12 console (ligh picture)</a>
216                        </p>
218        <div class="desc-right borderless">
219      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12-innen.jpg" width="297" height="676" alt="DEC LAB-12-Flip-Chips" />
220          <p class="small">The picture on the left shows the PDP-12 inner life with all 462 Flip-Chip-Boards.</p>
221        </div>
223        <p>By having all the following options, our computer was very comfortable
224        (the number in parentheses indicates the number of neccessary boards):</p>
226        <dl>
227                <dt>AD12 [A-D-Control] (12 modules):
228                <dd>The AD12 includes 16 channels of input, 10bit output resolution and features
229                    up to 60kHz signals at 30dB down.
231                <dt>DM12 [Data Break Multiplexer for KF12-B] (6 modules):
232                <dd>The DM12 provides the capability of operating up to three data break devices.
233                    The Data Break facility allows an I/O device to transfer information directly
234                        with the PDP-12 core memory on a cycle-stealing basis. This is particulary
235                        well suited for high-speed devices which transfer large amounts of information
236                        in block form. Peripheral I/O equipment  could reach a maximum transfer rate
237                        of 6,5 Mbit/sec.
239                <dt>DP12A [TTY-Dataphone] (4 modules):
240                <dd>The DP12 options permit interfacing additional Teletypes and Modems. They are
241                    capable of accepting data asynchronously up to 100,000 baud. The units are
242                        designed for US-ASCII and meet the EIA-standard (RS232) requirements.
244                <dt>DR12 [Relays and Control] (1 module):
245                <dd>The relay buffer is a six-bit register connected to six relays that are mounted
246                    on the data terminal panel. They can be used for controlling experiments or
247                        external equipment not otherwise directly interfaced with the PDP-12 Computer.
248                        The states of the relays can be examinede at any time via the register.
250                <dt>KE12 [Extended Arithmetik Element] (14 modules):
251                <dd>The EAE enables the CP (the DEC operating system) to perform arithmetic
252                    operations at higher speed. The ALU is extended by asynchronous logic such as a
253                        12-bit Multiplier Quotient Register and a 5-bit Step Counter.  These components
254                        are used by auxillary CPU instructions (opcodes).
256                <dt>KF12 [Multi Level] (54 modules):
257                <dd>The Multi-Level Automatic Priority Interrupt is designed to reduce the CPU
258                    overhead during the servicing of program interrupts. Up to 15 levels of interrupts
259                        can be accomodated with each level having an unique vector address. The interrupts
260                        can be accepted from other options (CPU extensions) or from up to six external
261                        devices. Storing of priority and vectoring of interrupt service routines is
262                        performed with a Stack.
264                <dt>KT12 [Time-Sharing Option] (2 modules):
265                <dd>This module provides the additional logic circuits required for the PDP12 Time
266                    Sharing System. Having satisfied the minimum equipment, it perimts up to 16 users
267                        to operate their individual programs in an apperantly simultaneous manner. The
268                        system is controlled by a group of subprograms called "TSS/12 Monitor".
270                <dt>KW12-A [Real Time Clock] (19 modules):
271                <dd>The RTC can be used to generate Program Interrupts over a range of intervals of
272                    2.5us to 40.96s; detect external and internal events in order to count them,
273                        measure them against a time base, measure the interval between them, use them as
274                        time base standard or control sample times of A/D conversions. In our system
275                        this module was used to connect the german longwave time signal radio station
276                        DCF77 in order to recieve the atomic clock time from the German master clocks
277                        in Frankfurt.
278        </dl>
280        <p>The computer is equipped with further cabinets which allow much more peripherals:</p>
282        <div class="desc-right no-copyright borderless">
283       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-12anwendung.jpg" width="400" height="366" alt="Typical PDP-12 in scientific environment" />
284           <p class="bildtext small">Typical picture in the 1970s: PDP-12 in the scientific domain. [Source: "digital products and applications, 1971"]</p>
285        </div>
287        <dl>
288                <dt>AA50P [12 Bit DAC Controller]
289                <dd>Cabinet to upgrade the number of digital-analog converters (half filled in our setup)
291                <dt>BA12 [Peripharal Expander]
292                <dd>Cabinet for peripheral extension, e.g. paper tape reader/puncher, PC05, card
293                    readers, etc.
295                <dt>DW08A [I/O Bus Converter]
296                <dd>Cabinet to connect "negative bus system" units. The "negative logic level" was used
297                    at the time of germanium transistors (PNP), for example the DF32 disk drive with
298                        fixed heads.
300                <dt>DW08E [I/O Bus Converter]
301                <dd>This plug-in for the smaller PDP-8e converts the PDP-8, -8i and -12 bus to the
302                    OMNIBUS system from the PDP-8e. Thus all 8e interfaces could be connected, e.g. the
303                        RK8E interface (Digitl RK05) or Plessey PM DD/8 disk drives.
305                <dt>BM812 [Memory Expansion Box]
306                <dd>Memory expansion box that is capable of expending either a PDP8i or PDP12
307                    from 8kB to 32kB with MM8e-stacks (like in the PDP-8e).
308        </dl>
310        <div class="desc-left auto-bildbreite borderless" style="margin-bottom: 0;">
311      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/talk-to-me.jpg" width="163" height="209" alt="Demo-12 Demoprogramm" />
312          <p class="bildtext small">So logs the PDP-12-demo program</p>
313        </div>
315        <p>This system is fully developed. This was a common approach at that time: At first the
316           computer was purchased in the basic version which was barely affordable. Afterwards
317           more options were installed step-by-step. That way the enormous acquisition costs
318           were distributed over several years and the computer was always up to date.<br>
319           We have very good programs [Demo-12 running on DIAL], which shows with extreme illustrative the performance of the computer. This includes an on-screen analog clock with real-time display and the game
320"SPACE WAR". Some of will be soon available on our special page [in working].
321    </p>
322        <div class="cols" style="clear:left;">
323        <div class="leftcol">
324        <p class="small">(Google-translation!):We have a PDP-12 price list from the year 1973, a period in which the PDP-12 was already an outdated model. Our fully-equipped computer was a PDP-12 LDP (Laboratory Data Processor), here specifically a "clinical lab12", sold at a price of DM 206.700. Most of the options listed above were built in. (In 1973 3,50DM corresponds to 1$).<br>
325        This computer was equipped with 4kB Memory Core. So one needs in adition a "Memory Extension Control" for 16.600 DM and a 4kB Memory Module for 25.100 DM. The price for the unimposing Peripheral Expander BA12 was 5.400 DM (equivalent to a midsize car) and "High-Speed Paper Tape Reader/Punch" incredible 16.200 DM.</div>
326        <div class="rightcol">
327        <p class="small">
329        A Disk Cartridge Drive RK05 where sold for DM 21.200, where one needs in addition the "Positive I/O Bus to Omnibus Converter" DW8E (6750 DM). Similarly is the Converter DW08A and the Cabinet AA50 for additional D/A Controller. The 3 plugged D/A modules were calculated with 1.680 DM per unit.
330        The memory expansion to 32K does not appear on the list, but the price for this option was about 50.000 DM including the controller.<br>
332        In the sum it is a staggering number of 387.690 DM, which is today corresponding about 500,000 € or 600.000 $!</p>
336<div class="clear">
339         <h3 id="8e">Lab-8e, PDP-8e</h3>
340        <div class="box left">
341                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/lab8e.jpg" width="400" height="461" alt="DEC LAB-8e" />
342        </div>
343        <div class="box center" style="min-width: 840px;">
344                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/pdp-8e,pannel.jpg" width="400" height="300" alt="PDP-8e operator panel" />
345        </div>
346    <div class="bildtext">
347            <p>The successor of the PDP-8i was the PDP-8e (1970). This computer came with an
348             internal bus system, so you could easily attach any peripherals using interface cards. This
349             feature made the "mini"-computer all-purpose. This computer type was offered with diverse
350             A/D- and D/A-converters and connection facilities as a laboratory computer for analogue
351             devices (shown in the picture). The peripherals are:</p>
352            <ul>
353                <li>VR 12 (oscilloscope display)</li>
354                <li>PC 04 (High speed paper tape reader/puncher)</li>
355                <li>3 x TU 56 (double tape drive)</li>
356                <li>A/D- and D/A-converter</li>
357            </ul>
358        </div>
359    <div class="box left clear-after">
360                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/dec/8e-module.jpg" alt="8e-Module" width="400" height="175"/>
361                <p>The picture on the left shows a board for own peripheral interfaces. In this unit,
362                   bus amplifiers, etc. are already mounted. You could install your own ICs in front of
363                   them and connect them with Wire-Wrap or soldered wires.
364                   On the right is a typical module with a lot of ICs. Both modules are only partially
365                   visible.
366                </p>
367    </div>
370 <h3 id="nova-en">Data General: NOVA 2</h3>
372   <div class="box left">
373      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/nova2.jpg" width="400" height="561" alt="Data General: NOVA 2" />
374<p>     Edson de Castro was responsible for product management at DEC and was intent
375on developing a 16-bit computer with a processor that would fit on a single
376printed circuit board. But Ken Olson, the founder of DEC, wasn't
377supportive. So de Castro left DEC in 1968 together with three other
378hardware engineers to found his own company in a vacant barber's shop:
379<b>Data General Corporation </b>(Massachusetts, USA).<br>
381Already in 1969 the first 16-bit computer in the <b>"NOVA" </b>series was ready
382for the market. Thanks to the simpler production method (no wire wrapping,
383only two boards + memory boards etc.) the basic version was quite inexpensive
384at $4000. However, this basic model alone wasn't really that useful, and
385after extending the computer the total price was substantially higher.
386The Nova computer was advertised as "the best small computer in the world".
387At this time, DEC was still building the PDP-8/I and the PDP-12, which
388required lots of very small flip-chip-modules. <br>
390The successor model (available in 1973), the<b> NOVA 2</b>, was simplified even
391further, and the increased chip density made it possible to have the whole
392processor together with the control logic for slow peripheral devices
393(teletype, paper tape puncher and reader) one single board. Our Nova is a
394NOVA 2/10 model with slots for 10 boards, and therefore enough space for
395quite a few device controllers and memory extensions.<br>
398From today's perspective, the rather huge boards (15x15 inch,
399nicknamed "circuit graveyards in baking tray size") do have disadvantages:
400any kind of repair is very difficult, because it is not possible to pin down
401a malfunction by exchanging small boards.<br>
403The NOVA shown in the picture is from a university. It is equipped with
404two harddisk drives, one twin floppy drive (8" disks!), one teletype,
405one high-speed paper tape punch reader and one punch card reader (not in
406the picture). Later on a terminal was added, which extended the computer
407to a comfortably usable system.</p>
409The details are better visible in a larger photo: <a  class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/nova-detail.jpg">NOVA 2 with terminal</a><br>
411          <p class="bildtext small">
412Hardware configuration, from top to bottom:<br>
415<dd>Paper tape punch reader (mostly used for testing programs included with
416  every delivered system)
417<dd>Twin disk drive for 8-inch floppy disks, Model 6032
418<dd>CPU with core memory, 32 KB, access time 0.8 us
419<dd>Two hard-disk drives with removable cartridges, Series 30. Capacity
420  1.200.000 16-bit words, or 2.4 MB.
421<dd>Disk Cartridge System 4047, necessary to connect the second disk
422<dd>Terminal "DASHER 1", Model 6052 by Data General, on the right hand side
424 </div>
427    <h3>WANG 2200 with bulky peripheral hardware</h3>
428    <p>Next, the first system that looks like today's computer is presented: <a class="go" href="/en/devices/wang2200.shtm">WANG 2200</a>, year of manufacture 1973. This computer, with so many peripheral devices, is probably unique in Germany. The peripherals: paper tape reader, punch card reader,  triple 8-inch disc drive, hard disc system with 38cm diameter disks (the device weights 100kg and cost 24000 DM, but only holdy 5MB), special BASIC-language keyboard, etc.</p>
429    <p>WANG quickly recognized that the future of computers needed screens. However the concurrent HP
430    computers had only a single-line LED display until 1975.</p>
432    <div class="box center">
433       <a href="/en/devices/wang2200.shtm" name="backlink-wang2200"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/wang2200.jpg" width="592" height="402" alt="Wang 2200" /></a>
434    </div>
436    <p>The first personal computer was also build by WANG: the PCS II (1975). The first PC that was affordable for everybody was the PET 2001 from Commodore. It came on the market in 1977 and was as cheap as today's PCs, but had 8kB and had decent applications. Many more home computers followed, the market got out of hand and therewith this collection of computers ends.</p>
438     <p>See further details at <a class="go" href="/en/details2.shtm" title="Details 2">the tabular overview of
439     mid range data processing equipment and proffessional early computers</a>.</p>
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