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2        $seiten_id = 'gamma3';
3        $version = '$Id: gamma3.php 299 2012-09-19 09:38:55Z heribert $';
4        $title = 'A first generation tube calculator: BULL GAMMA 3';
6        require "../../lib/technikum29.php";
8    <h2>A first generation tube calculator: BULL GAMMA 3</h2>
10    <div class="box left clear-after">
11      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-gamma-3.jpg"
12           alt="The BULL GAMMA 3, closed state" width="156" height="210" />
13      <p class="bildtext">
14        The BULL GAMMA 3 was build since 1952. At these days, such devices were
15        called "electronically calculating device" (original translation
16        from the BULL maintenance manual), "electron computer" or actually
17        "electron mastermind".
18        <br/>The device could be connected to several punchcard devices, for
19        example the <a href="tabulating-machine.php">Tabulating Machine BS</a>,
20        to the card copier PRD or to the ULP puncher.
21      </p>
22      <!--
23        Blabla-Gelaber (Blindzitat von
25        Pierre Letrot in "Arts et Manufactures") soll spaeter mal uebersetzt
26        werden.
27      -->
28      <p>
29        Our GAMMA 3 installation is fully equipped and features seven
30        <a href="storage-media.php">delay line memory units</a> with a capacity
31        of 12 decimal digits each. To extend the built-in memory, there
32        were special so-called "storage cabinets"
33        that contained additional 24 storage units, each with a capacity
34        of 12 decimal numbers.
35        <br/>Summing up, the calculator features almost 400 electron tubes.
36        Thyratrons were used to connect this fast calculator to the slow
37        punchcard auxillary devices. A thyratron tube is capable of saving
38        temporary digital states.
39      </p>
40    </div>
42    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
43        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-gamma3.jpg"
44             alt="BULL GAMMA 3 Innen" width="692" height="565" />
45            <p class="bildtext"><b>Tubes over Tubes: BULL Gamma 3</b></p>
46        </div>
48        <p>
49        The modules could be folded out, hence the calculator is quite
50        service friendly. Two big fans circulate fresh air thorught the
51        case. On the left you can see a part of the big power supply &ndash;
52        39 fuses keep the electric circuits seperated for additional security.
54        <br/>When this calculator is connected to our BULL Tabulating Machine,
55        all the information from the papertape reader brushes are directly
56        transfered to the GAMMA 3. Thus programs and data can be manipulated
57        directly by the GAMMA 3. The output is transfered back to the
58        printing unit from the Tabulating Machine.
59    </p>
61    <div class="box left clear-after">
62      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/gamma-3-netzteil.jpg"
63        alt="BULL GAMMA 3 power supply" width="350" height="527" />
64      <p class="bildtext">
65        This picture displays the monster power supply. Comparing to this,
66        you can possibly imagine how power supplies of very big tube
67        calculators looked like! <!-- stupid-mode... -->
68        <br/>At these days, selenium rectifier were used to convert AC to DC.
69        They are made from stacks of square <!-- thanks, -->
70        plated with about 1&micro;m of bismuth or nickel. A much thicker layer of selenium
71        which has been doped with a halogen is deposited on top of the thin metal
72        plating. The selenium is then converted into polycrystalline gray from by
73        annealing. Each plate is able to withstand about 20 volts in the reverse
74        direction. The metal squares, or disks, also serve as heat sinks in
75        addition to providing a mounting place for the selenium disks.
76        Plates can be stacked indefinitely to withstand higher voltages,
77        <!-- Source:
78             Creative Commons SA license... and a blind quote here... -->
79        as you can see in the lower right of the picture.
80        At the left side you see dozens of electrolytic capacitors.
81      </p>
82    </div>
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