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</small> bei Termine versetzt
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Gamma3: Bild gestreckt und Darstellgrößen angepasst
5x<br> sind immer noch da, Korrektur später

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2        $seiten_id = 'gamma3';
3        $version = '$Id: gamma3.php 554 2014-05-26 16:05:31Z heribert $';
4        $title = 'A first generation tube calculator: BULL GAMMA 3';
6        require "../../lib/technikum29.php";
8    <h2>A first generation tube calculator: <b>BULL GAMMA 3</b></h2>
10    <div class="box left">
11      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-gamma-3.jpg"
12           alt="The BULL GAMMA 3, closed state" width="156" height="210" />
13                   </div>
15                <p>
16        The BULL GAMMA 3 was build since 1952. At these days, such devices were
17        called "electronically calculating device" (original translation
18        from the BULL maintenance manual), "electron computer" or actually
19        "electron mastermind".
20        <br/>The device could be connected to several punchcard devices, for
21        example the <a href="tabulating-machine.php">Tabulating Machine BS</a>,
22        to the card copier PRD or to the ULP puncher.<br><br>
23                The former director of the BULL company, Pierre Letort, described in the magazine "Arts et Manufactures", No. 22, dated June 1953, the operation of the GAMMA 3:<br>
25                <blockquote>"In its current configuration, the computer acts as an extension unit for the
26punched card machine it is connected to. The cards are read in the reader
27station which transmits data to the computer.<br> The computer in turn performs all
28necessary calculations and transmits the results back to the punched card
29machine which will print or punch these values. Regardless of the task, the
30computer is so fast that there is no visible delay caused by the calculations".</blockquote>
31      </p>
33         <div class="desc-left auto-bildbreite borderless no-copyright">
34<a class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-gamma3.jpg">
35                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-gamma3.jpg" alt="BULL Gamma 3" width="350" height="361" /></a>     
36                <div class="bildtext"> 
37        <p><b>Tubes over Tubes: BULL GAMMA 3</b></p> <a class="popup" href="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-gamma3.jpg"> enlarge picture</a>
39        </div></div>
41        <p>
42        The modules could be folded out, hence the calculator is quite
43        service friendly. Two big fans circulate fresh air thorught the
44        case.
45                 <br/>When this calculator is connected to our BULL Tabulating Machine,
46        all the information from the papertape reader brushes are directly
47        transfered to the GAMMA 3. Thus programs and data can be manipulated
48        directly by the GAMMA 3. The output is transfered back to the
49        printing unit from the Tabulating Machine.<br>
50        Our GAMMA 3 installation is fully equipped and features seven
51        <a href="storage-media.php">delay line memory units</a> with a capacity
52        of 12 decimal digits each. To extend the built-in memory, there
53        were special so-called "storage cabinets"
54        that contained additional 24 storage units, each with a capacity
55        of 12 decimal numbers.
56        <br/>Summing up, the calculator features almost 400 electron tubes.
57        Thyratrons were used to connect this fast calculator to the slow
58        punchcard auxillary devices. A thyratron tube is capable of saving
59        temporary digital states.
60                </p>
62                <br><br><br><br><br>
64         <div class="desc-left auto-bildbreite borderless">
65                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/gamma-3-netzteil.jpg" alt="BULL GAMMA 3 Netzteil" width="350" height="527" />
66                <div class="bildtext"> 
67        <p><b>Here you can see a part of the big power supply</b></p>
68                </div></div>
72          <br>
73        This picture displays the monster power supply. 39 fuses keep the electric circuits seperated for additional security. Comparing to this,
74        you can possibly imagine how power supplies of very big tube
75        calculators looked like! <!-- stupid-mode... -->
76        <br/>At these days, selenium rectifier were used to convert AC to DC.
77        They are made from stacks of square <!-- thanks, -->
78        plated with about 1&micro;m of bismuth or nickel. A much thicker layer of selenium
79        which has been doped with a halogen is deposited on top of the thin metal
80        plating. The selenium is then converted into polycrystalline gray from by
81        annealing. Each plate is able to withstand about 20 volts in the reverse
82        direction. The metal squares, or disks, also serve as heat sinks in
83        addition to providing a mounting place for the selenium disks.
84        Plates can be stacked indefinitely to withstand higher voltages,
85        <!-- Source:
86             Creative Commons SA license... and a blind quote here... -->
87        as you can see in the lower right of the picture.
88        At the left side you see dozens of electrolytic capacitors.
89      </p>
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