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1<?php
2        $seiten_id = 'lochkarten';
3        $version = '$Id: punchcard.php 475 2013-11-17 13:16:27Z heribert $';
4        $title = 'Punch card computing';
5       
6        require "../../lib/technikum29.php";
7?>
8    <h2>Punch card computing</h2>
9
10    <p>Punch cards are used since the beginnings of the 20th century
11       as storage media. They are handy, can be labeled automatically or by
12       hand, and can be sorted quickly. Therefore they were used until
13       the late 1980s. Indeed they were mainly used in the 1960s, when
14       EDP conquered the world. Today's folk is astonished at the size,
15       the clearness and functionality of these machines. At technikum29
16       most of these archaic devices still work.</p>
17
18        <h3>Card puncher devices</h3>
19    <div class="box left clear-after">
20        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/lochkartenstanzer.jpg"
21                 alt="Various card punchers" width="330" height="368"
22                 class="nomargin-bottom" />
23        <div class="bildtext">
24           <p>For punching cards only occasionally, the small bottom device
25               was quite sufficient, e.g. for small companies. The device in
26               the middle of the picture is a puncher from BULL and the topmost
27               device is a so-called "magnetic puncher" that is equipped with
28               solenoids that punch the holes. For even higher amounts of
29               punching requirements, there were quite more expensive
30               "motor-driven punchers".
31            </p>
32    </div>
33    </div>
34
35    <p>A typical machinery consists of a card puncher which punches the
36       information and data on the cards, a card collator which sorts
37       the cards from different stacks (for instance <i>adresses</i>
38       and <i>bills</i>), a sorter which sorts with specified loads
39       and possibly a punch card interpreter that writes the punched
40       information on a prescribed position on the punch card.</p>
41
42          <div class="box left clear-after">
43        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm26.jpg" alt="IBM 026 Card-Punch" width="450" height="431" />
44        <p class="bildtext" id="026"><b id="026">IMB 026 Printing-Card-Punch</b></p>
45        Beginning in 1949 IBM built two versions of this card punch: The IBM 024
46which could just punch cards and the IBM 026 which could additionally print
47the data being punched on the top of the card in human-readable form, so the
48IBM 026 was actually a printing card punch. The printer is of ingenious
49design: A very compact wire printer only a couple of cubic inches in size,
50which is driven by the punch mechanism.<br>
51This is a typical example for the art of engineering that was common at IBM
52at that time: Developing simple, yet powerful solutions. Due to this
53approach, IBM filed (and still does) a vast amount of patent applications.
54The control system of the card punch only contains 10 relays featuring a lot
55of contact sets and 9 vacuum tubes.<br>
56This card punch was so successful that it was built unmodified for 20 years
57and was sold world wide - an exceptional record in an area like electronic
58data processing.</p>
59           
60           
61           
62           
63           
64    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
65        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm_029-juki.jpg" alt="IBM 029 und Juki" width="580" height="340" />
66        <p class="bildtext"><b>IBM 029 and JUKI card puncher.</b></p>
67        </div>
68       
69        <p> On the left hand in the picture there is the legendary
70            IBM 029 (build since 1964), on the right hand the JUKI puncher
71            (made in Japan). The JUKI puncher is not accidentally looking
72            like the IBM: In 1971 IBM brought the puncher 129 on the market
73            which buffers the content of the whole punchcard while reading.
74            Therefore IBM selled the license to reproduce the machine. In
75            1971, the IBM 029 costed about 15.500 DM.
76        </p>
77       
78        <div class="box center auto-bildbreite" id="u1710">
79        <a name="univac1710"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac1710.jpg" alt="UNIVAC 1710 Verifying Interpreting Punch" width="580" height="435" /></a>
80        <p class="bildtext"><b>UNIVAC 1710 Verifying Interpreting Punch</b> (VIP)</p>
81        </div>
82       
83        <p>
84           The Univac 1710 VIP was released at
85           the same time like the <a href="univac9400.php">UNIVAC 9400 mainframe</a>
86           in the year 1969. This device is very fast and versatile and works mostly
87           electronically. Most likely, Univac wanted to trump IBM with this
88           trendsetting device. The device's internals are very elaborate, but offer
89           many advantages, compared to usual apperatures at that time:
90           <br/>It featured a core memory with 16 x 80 x 2 cells for both data and programs. It could
91           handle two programs and one data storage. Programming
92           was performed automatically once program cards have been inserted, and
93           programs could be changed at the touch of a key. The device furthermore
94           featured program-controlled printing during punching.
95           Keypunching errors were electronically corrected, since cards were punched
96           only after all entries were in storage. Verifying and correction comprised
97           a one-pass operation. Verified cards were uniquely notched while error
98           cards were automatically ejected to a separate stacker.
99           <br/>The device also features a large illuminated digital display that
100           indicates which program is in control, furthermore the device could be
101           used for subsequent card labeling. However, the device had always
102           mechanical problems: The type wheel print was of bad quality and the
103           card feeding could easily stop working when the adjustment wasn't
104           perfectly fitting.
105    </p>
106
107       
108        <h3>Sorters</h3>
109
110    <div class="box center">
111        <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.php" name="backlink-sorter"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm-082-sorter.jpg" alt="IBM 082 sorter" width="361" height="287" /><img style="margin-left: 2px;" src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm-082-sorter.offen.jpg" alt="IBM 082 sorter (without cover)" width="215" height="287" /></a>
112        <p class="center">
113            <b>IBM 082 punch card sorter</b>, Built since 1949
114            <br/><a class="go" href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.php">The function of the punch card sorter</a>
115         </p>
116    </div>
117
118    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
119        <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.php"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm083.jpg" alt="IBM 083 punch card sorter" width="602" height="630" /></a>
120        <p class="bildtext">
121            <b>IBM 083 sorter</b>
122            <br/>Compared to the IBM 082 the sorting mechanics were greatly improved. The machine can sort 1000 cards
123            per minute. Much more than 16 cards per second are not possible, due to the mechanic's inertia. This
124            type was built since 1958.
125            <br/><a class="go" href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.php">The function of the punch card sorter</a>
126        </p>
127    </div>
128       
129       
130        <h3>Collators</h3>
131
132    <div class="box left clear-after">
133        <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-collator.php" name="backlink-ibm077"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm77.jpg" alt="IBM 077" width="450" height="526" /></a>
134        <p class="bildtext"><b>IBM punch card collator 077</b></p>
135                <p>
136            The picture above shows the back of a collator, year of manufacture 1959.
137                The collector reads 480 cards per minute. It is capable of changing the
138                order of the cards, looking for copies (and seperating them out) or
139                comparing two stacks and finding out the differences. Compared to
140                today's database storages this card collator is a kind of mechanical
141                database query language interpreter.
142        <!--<br/>The programs are plugged together on a patch panel. Thus they can easily be changed. -->
143        <br />The electronics comprises of relays and camshafts which control
144             switches. Early engineers had to use oilcans for the bearing's
145             maintenance as often as a checking device.
146             <br />The programs could be changed by replacing the programing field.
147             <br/><a class="go" href="/en/devices/punchcard-collator.php">The function of the punch card collator</a>
148                </p>
149        </div>
150
151    <div class="box left clear-after">
152         <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-collator.php"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-mischer.jpg" alt="Bull punch card collator 56.00" width="450" height="536" /></a>
153         <p class="bildtext"><b>Bull punch card collator 56.00.</b></p>
154                <p>
155            This very big device features very much chrome and almost 1000 relays,
156                assembled to allow developers to implement varoius mixing algorithms
157                with wired panels. Thus collating and sorting could be performed in only
158                one working cycle. Depending on the task, the device could process about
159                250 - 500 cards per minute.
160                </p>
161        </div>
162       
163        <h3>Alphabetic Interpreter</h3>
164       
165    <div class="box left clear-after">
166         <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm_548.jpg" alt="IBM 548" width="450" height="509" />
167         <p class="bildtext"><b>IBM 548</b></p>
168                <p>
169                        A huge punch card interpreter made by IBM. This machine can label 60 cards
170                        per minute in 60 cols and two rows, according to the settings which you can set.
171                </p>
172        </div>
173
174        <h3>ANELEX high speed printer</h3>
175     <div class="box left clear-after">
176        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/anelex-drucker.jpg"
177          alt="ANELEX high speed printer" width="485" height="423" />
178        <div class="bildtext">
179          <p><b>ANELEX high speed printer, series 5</b>,
180             with lifted cover.</p>
181                  <p>Just standing in front of this behemoth is an impressive experience. The
182overall weight of this mechanical wonder amounts to 635 kg and is sturdy
183enough to print a next to uncountable number of pages without any major
184defects. The series 5 printer was developed in the USA in 1963/64 and was
185used by many computer manufacturers (as a matter of fact, even ZUSE used this
186printer for the Z-23 - other examples include the Electrologica X8 from the
187Netherlands etc.). Being able to print 1250 lines per minute it was the
188fastest printer until 1965.<br>
189Our ANELEX printer has been repaired and can now be controlled by a
190microcontroller which in turn can be connected to a Laptop or the like. This
191is a nice example of a symbiosis of old and modern computing technology.
192                  </p>
193        </div>
194     </div>
195       
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