source: t29-www/en/computer/punchcard.shtm @ 121

Last change on this file since 121 was 121, checked in by heribert, 13 years ago

Grossformatige Ueberarbeitung der Homepage durch Heribert.
Viele Detailaenderungen; extrem viele neue oder geaenderte
Bilder, viele geaenderte/umstrukturierte Seiten im
Rechnertechnikbereich, neue Seite "Sonstiges" mit Pianola,

Englische Synchronisierung steht noch aus.

-- sven @ t29

File size: 8.9 KB
1<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
2     "">
3<html xmlns="" xml:lang="de">
4<head><!--#set var="title"        value="Punch card computing"
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8   --><!--#set var="prev"         value="tabulating-machine.shtm"
9   --><!--#set var="prev_title"   value="Punch card tabulator"
10   --><!--#set var="next"         value="electron-tubes.shtm"
11   --><!--#set var="next_title"   value="Desk calculators with electron tubes"
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19    <meta name="t29.comment" content="de syncs" />
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23<div id="content">
24    <h2><!--#echo var="title" --></h2>
26    <p>Punch cards are used since the beginnings of the 20th century
27       as storage media. They are handy, can be labeled automatically or by
28       hand, and can be sorted quickly. Therefore they were used until
29       the late 1980s. Indeed they were mainly used in the 1960s, when
30       EDP conquered the world. Today's folk is astonished at the size,
31       the clearness and functionality of these machines. At technikum29
32       most of these archaic devices still work.</p>
34    <div class="box left">
35        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/lochkartenstanzer.jpg"
36          alt="Various card punchers" width="330" height="368"
37          class="nomargin-bottom" />
38        <div class="bildtext">
39            <b>Card puncher devices</b>
40            <p>For punching cards only occasionally, the small bottom device
41               was quite sufficient, e.g. for small companies. The device in
42               the middle of the picture is a puncher from BULL and the topmost
43               device is a so-called "magnetic puncher" that is equipped with
44               solenoids that punch the holes. For even higher amounts of
45               punching requirements, there were quite more expensive
46               "motor-driven punchers".
47            </p>
48        </div>
49        <p class="clear">&nbsp;</p>
50    </div>
52    <p>A typical machinery consists of a card puncher which punches the
53       information and data on the cards, a card collator which sorts
54       the cards from different stacks (for instance <i>adresses</i>
55       and <i>bills</i>), a sorter which sorts with specified loads
56       and possibly a punch card interpreter that writes the punched
57       information on a prescribed position on the punch card.</p>
59    <div class="box center">
60        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm_029-juki.jpg" alt="IBM 029 und Juki" width="580" height="340" />
61        <p class="bildtext">
62            <b>IBM 029 and JUKI card puncher.</b>
63            On the left hand in the picture there is the legendary
64            IBM 029 (build since 1964), on the right hand the JUKI puncher
65            (made in Japan). The JUKI puncher is not accidentally looking
66            like the IBM: In 1971 IBM brought the puncher 129 on the market
67            which buffers the content of the whole punchcard while reading.
68            Therefore IBM selled the license to reproduce the machine. In
69            1971, the IBM 029 costed about 15.500 DM.
70        </p>
71        <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
72    </div>
74        <div class="box center">
75        <a name="univac1710"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/univac1710.jpg" alt="UNIVAC 1710 Verifying Interpreting Punch" width="580" height="435" /></a>
76        <p class="bildtext">
77           The <b>UNIVAC 1710 Verifying Interpreting Punch</b> (VIP) was released at
78           the same time like the <a href="univac9400.shtm">UNIVAC 9400 mainframe</a>
79           in the year 1969. This device is very fast and versatile and works mostly
80           electronically. Most likely, Univac wanted to trump IBM with this
81           trendsetting device. The device's internals are very elaborate, but offer
82           many advantages, compared to usual apperatures at that time:
83           <br/>It featured semiconductor storage for both data and programs. It could
84           handle eight programs and four auxillary data storages &ndash; programming
85           was performed automatically once program cards have been inserted, and
86           programs could be changed at the touch of a key. The device furthermore
87           featured program-controlled printing during punching and verification;
88           Keypunching errors were electronically corrected, since cards were punched
89           only after all entries were in storage. Verifying and correction comprised
90           a one-pass operation. Verified cards were uniquely notched while error
91           cards were automatically ejected to a separate stacker.
92           <br/>The device also features a large illuminated digital display that
93           indicates which program is in control, furthermore the device could be
94           used for subsequent card labeling. However, the device had always
95           mechanical problems: The type wheel print was of bad quality and the
96           card feeding could easily stop working when the adjustment wasn't
97           perfectly fitting.
98         </p>
99    </div>
102    <div class="box center">
103        <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.shtm" name="backlink-sorter"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm-082-sorter.jpg" alt="IBM 082 sorter" width="361" height="287" /><img style="margin-left: 2px;" src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm-082-sorter.offen.jpg" alt="IBM 082 sorter (without cover)" width="215" height="287" /></a>
104        <p class="center">
105            <b>IBM 082 punch card sorter</b>, Built since 1949
106            <br/><a class="go" href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.shtm">The function of the punch card sorter</a>
107         </p>
108    </div>
110    <div class="box center">
111        <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.shtm"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm_083.jpg" alt="IBM 083 punch card sorter" width="569" height="487" /></a>
112        <p class="bildtext">
113            <b>IBM 083 sorter</b><br/>
114            Compared to the IBM 082 the sorting mechanics were greatly improved. The machine can sort 1000 cards
115            per minute. Much more than 16 cards per second are not possible, due to the mechanic's inertia. This
116            type was built since 1958.
117            <br/><a class="go" href="/en/devices/punchcard-sorter.shtm">The function of the punch card sorter</a>
118        </p>
119    </div>
121     <div class="box center">
122         <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-collator.shtm" name="backlink-ibm077"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm77.jpg" alt="IBM 077" width="450" height="526" /></a>
123         <p class="bildtext">
124             The picture above show the heart of an <b>IBM punch card collator 077</b>, year of manufacture 1959. The collector reads 480 cards per minute. It is capable of changing the order of the cards, looking for copies (and seperating them out) or comparing two stacks and finding out the differences. Compared to today's database storages this card collator is a kind of mechanical database query language interpreter.
125             <!--<br/>The programs are plugged together on a patch panel. Thus they can easily be changed. -->
126             <br />The electronics comprises of relays and camshafts which control
127             switches. Early engineers had to use oilcans for the bearing's
128             maintenance as often as a checking device.
129             <br />The programs could be changed by replacing the programing field.
130             <br/><a class="go" href="/en/devices/punchcard-collator.shtm">The function of the punch card collator</a>
131         </p>
132     </div>
134     <div class="box center">
135         <a href="/en/devices/punchcard-collator.shtm"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-mischer.jpg" alt="Bull punch card collator 56.00" width="450" height="536" /></a>
136         <p class="bildtext">
137              <b>Bull punch card collator 56.00.</b>
138              <br/>This very big device features very much chrome and almost 1000 relays, assembled to allow developers to implement varoius mixing algorithms with wired panels. Thus collating and sorting could be performed in only one working cycle. Depending on the task, the device could process about 250 - 500 cards per minute.
139         </p>
140     </div>
142     <div class="box center">
143         <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/ibm_548.jpg" alt="IBM 548" width="450" height="509" />
144         <p class="bildtext">
145             <b>IBM 548</b>. A huge punch card interpreter made by IBM. This machine can label 60 cards
146             per minute in 60 cols and two rows, according to the settings which you can set.
147         </p>
148     </div>
149</div><!-- end of content -->
150<!--#include virtual="/en/inc/" -->
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