Changeset 1087 in t29-www


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Timestamp:
Jan 8, 2017, 9:27:21 AM (3 years ago)
Author:
heribert
Message:

Speichermedien übersetzt (Bernd)
Tabelliermaschine muss noch im Englischen angeglichen werden

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1 deleted
5 edited

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  • de/rechnertechnik/speichermedien.php

    r1086 r1087  
    5454        <p class="bildtext"><i>Bild 4:<br>Laufzeitkette, hier nur drei der 120 LC-Pässe</i></p></div>
    5555               
    56                 <p>Das abgebildete Speichermodul kann gerade mal <b>eine</b> 12-stellige Dezimalzahl speichern. Binär entspricht dies einer Speicherkapazität von ca. 6 Byte!! Sie lesen richtig: 6 Byte, nicht KB oder gar MB! In dieser frühen Phase der "Elektronischen Rechengeräte" war Speicherplatz extrem teuer und sehr voluminös. Bei der Programmierung musste man darauf extreme Rücksicht nehmen.
    57                 Ein wirklich seltener Speicher, der vor der Zeit von Kernspeichern zum Einsatz kam. Er wurde auch mit "Verzögerungsspeicher" oder "Verzögerungslinie" bezeichnet. Im BULL-Gamma-3 Rechner sind 7 Stück dieser Laufzeitspeicher eingebaut. Das entspricht 58 kg Elektronik für 42 Byte Arbeitsspeicher.</p>
     56                <p>Das abgebildete Speichermodul kann gerade mal <b>eine</b> 12-stellige Dezimalzahl speichern. Binär entspricht dies einer Speicherkapazität von ca. 6 Byte!! Sie lesen richtig: 6 Byte, nicht KB oder gar MB! In dieser frühen Phase der "Elektronischen Rechengeräte" war Speicherplatz extrem teuer und sehr voluminös. Bei der Programmierung musste man darauf sehr viel Rücksicht nehmen.
     57                Dies ist ein wirklich seltener Speicher, der vor der Zeit von Kernspeichern zum Einsatz kam. Er wurde auch mit "Verzögerungsspeicher" oder "Verzögerungslinie" bezeichnet. Im BULL-Gamma-3 Rechner sind 7 Stück dieser Laufzeitspeicher eingebaut. Das entspricht 58 kg Elektronik für 42 Byte Arbeitsspeicher.</p>
    5858               
    5959        <!-- Ende der Laufzeitspeicher-Box, Speicherausschnitt-Detailfoto -->
  • en/computer/storage-media.php

    r1086 r1087  
    3434
    3535    <h3 id="delay-line-memory">Delay line memory from the BULL GAMMA 3 tube calculator</h3>
    36        
     36        <p>
     37      Incredibly big, next to no capacity from today's point of view and at 8.3 kg
     38extremely heavy - that is the historic memory from our vacuum tube based <a href="/en/computer/gamma3.php"> BULL
     39GAMMA 3</a> computer (vintage 1952-1959). See this marvelous device here:
     40
    3741        <div class="box center">
    38         <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/bull-gamma3-laufzeitspeicher.jpg" alt="Bull Laufzeitspeicher" width="720" height="559" />
    39         <p class="bildtext"><b>Delay-Line</b></p></div>
    40        
    41         <div class="box left clear-after nomargin-bottom">
    42                 <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/speicherausschnitt.jpg" alt="Details des Laufzeitspeicherfotos" style="margin-left: 6px;" width="225" height="233" />
    43                 <p class="bildtext"><b>Cutout. The LC elements can be clearly seen.</b></p>
    44 
    45     <p>
    46         One of these solutions is the so called delay line memory.
    47         It consists of several chained LC-oscillators that are set
    48         up as low-pass filters. In this circuit the pulses are carried slower compared
    49         to ohmic conductors. Due to the high damping the pulses must be amplified again.
    50         Therefore the memory is equipped with 12 tube amplifiers. After amplification
    51         at the end of the LC chain, the information is read in at the beginning of the
    52         chain again. In this way it runs permanentely throught the delay line memory.
    53         <br/>The pictures show a memory unit which is capable of storing a decimal
    54         integer with only 12 digits. Obviously storage was very expensive in the early
    55         times of computing.</p>
    56         </div><!-- end of details laufzeitspeicherfoto-Box -->
     42        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/bull-gamma3-laufzeitspeicher.jpg" alt="Delay-Line" width="720" height="559" />
     43        <p class="bildtext"><i>Figure 1: Delay-Line</i></p></div>
     44       
     45The next picture shows the back of this memory (M1). The bottle of wine
     46serves as a comparison. The delay lines consist of 120 LC combinations which
     47serve as low-pass filters yielding, each yielding a short delay.
     48
     49<div class="box left">
     50        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/bull-gamma3-speicher.jpg" alt="Delay line memory opened" width="478" height="380" />
     51        <p class="bildtext"><i>Figure 2 (on the left): Delay line memory opened</i></p></div>
     52
     53        <div class="box center">       
     54<img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/speicherausschnitt.jpg" alt="Details" width="225" height="233" />
     55<p class="bildtext"><i>Figure 3: Cutout. The LC elements can be clearly seen</i></p></div>
     56               
     57
     58After having passed through 12 such delaying low-pass filters, the signals
     59are extremely attenuated and must be regenerated. This is done by 10 tube
     60based amplifiers. At the end of such a chain of low-pass filters and
     61amplifiers, the signals are amplified again and fed to the input of the delay
     62chain. This causes a bit pattern to circulate in the memory, thus effectively
     63creating a memory.
     64
     65<div class="box left">
     66        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/laufzeitkette.jpg" width="478" height="119" />
     67        <p class="bildtext"><i>Figure 4: Part of a delay line - three of 120 LC combinations are visible</i></p></div>
     68
     69
     70The memory module shown here can store a single (!) twelve digit decimal
     71number which corresponds to about 6 byte! Not 6 MB, not 6 kB, no, six single
     72bytes! Back in the days of this computer memory was en extremely scarce
     73resource. Programmers were hard pressed to use as few memory locations as
     74possible.<br>
     75
     76This kind of memory is extremely rare and predates the widespread use of
     77core-memory. It was called a "delay-line memory". The BULL GAMMA 3 uses seven
     78of these delay-line memories, corresponding to 58 kg of electronics yielding
     79a total of 42 bytes of main memory.</p>
     80
     81       
    5782
    5883               
     
    6489        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/laufzeitspeicher.jpg" alt="Photography of a magnetostrictive memory" width="421" height="393" />
    6590        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/laufzeitspeicher-details.jpg" alt="details" style="margin-left: 3px;" width="421" height="393" />
    66                 <p class="bildtext"><b>1&nbsp;kB magnetostrictive delay line memory</b></p>
     91                <p class="bildtext"><i>1&nbsp;kB magnetostrictive delay line memory</i></p>
    6792        </div>
    6893
     
    77102        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/demo-kernspeicher.jpg" width="428" height="322" /> </a>
    78103       
    79         <p class="bildtext"><b>Core memory demonstration model, Transfluxor</b><br>(you can enlarge the picture!)</p>
     104        <p class="bildtext"><i>Core memory demonstration model, Transfluxor</i><br>(you can enlarge the picture!)</p>
    80105       
    81106<p>
     
    101126        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/triumph-kernspeicher.jpg" alt="Core memory made by Triumph" width="694" height="520" />
    102127        <div class="bildtext">
    103                     <p><b>Triumph core memory</b></p>
     128                    <p><i>Triumph core memory</i></p>
    104129               
    105130            <p>The company "Triumph" created a very demonstrative core memory
     
    111136                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/kernspeicher-ausschnitt.jpg" alt="Detailed view on the Triumph Core Memory" width="694" height="90" />
    112137                <div class="bildtext">
    113                     <p>The Triump core memory was still threaded manually, in contrast
    114                            to the memory shown below.</p>
     138                    <i>The Triump core memory was still threaded manually, in contrast
     139                           to the memory shown below.</i>
    115140                </div>
    116141    </div>
     
    129154    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
    130155       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/kernspeicher.big.jpg" alt="Photography illustrating the size of a core memory in contrast to a match" width="629" height="443" />
    131        <p class="bildtext"><b>Storage layer with a capacity of 16.000 bit</b></p>
     156       <p class="bildtext"><i>Storage layer with a capacity of 16.000 bit</i></p>
    132157        </div>
    133158       
     
    143168   <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
    144169        <a name="backlink-gefaedeltes-rom" href="/en/devices/threaded-rom.php"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/nixdorf-rom-gesamt.jpg" alt="Photography of a threaded ROM made by Nixdorf" width="694" height="470" /></a>
    145                 <p class="bildtext"><b>Nixdorf threaded ROM</b></p>
     170                <p class="bildtext"><i>Nixdorf threaded ROM</i></p>
    146171   </div>
    147172   
     
    155180   <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
    156181       <a href="/en/devices/magnetic-stick-memory.php"><img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/gefaedeltes-rom.jpg" alt="A 'magnetic stick memory' made by nixdorf" width="750" height="525" /></a>
    157        <p class="bildtext"><b>Nixdorf magnetic stick memory</b></p>
     182       <p class="bildtext"><i>Nixdorf magnetic stick memory</i></p>
    158183   </div>
    159184   
  • en/computer/tabulating-machine.php

    r934 r1087  
    1919       Nevertheless even medium-sized businesses (especially banks) had to buy
    2020           these punch card machines to work economically.</p>
    21 
     21<div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
     22        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-bs-pr/tabelliermaschine.jpg"
     23             width="679" height="658" alt="Bull PS BR Tabulating Machine" />
     24                <p class="bildtext"><i>Tabulating Machine Bull BS-PR</i></p>
     25    </div>
    2226    <p>On high quality tabulating machines the patch panel could be replaced to
    2327       perform very different tasks. By plugging the cables on the programming field
     
    2731       we own other machines that are also operational to perform card driven EDP,
    2832       that is, devices for creation, sorting, mixing, etc. the cards.</p>
    29 
     33           
     34<div class="box left clear-after">
     35      <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-bs-pr/relais1.jpg"
     36           alt="Partial view of the relays" width="312" height="416"/>
     37      <p class="bildtext"></p>
     38         
    3039    <p>We have digged out programs in order to enable our tabulating machine to calculate
    3140       bank statements as well as multiplying and dividing. However, advanced
     
    3342       to implement a good deal of operations with lengthy algorithms borrowed from
    3443       computer science.
    35        
     44        
    3645    <p>And so it came to pass that some BULL engineer asked himself why there was not yet a
    3746       way to compute square roots on the tabulating machine back then in 1959.
     
    3948       implement the <em>Toepler algorithm</em> on this machine. It turned out it was
    4049       possible and he won the bet. We came across that program and restored it back
    41        to operation. We happily relieved the historical moment having the <b>world's only tabulating
    42        machine that can calculate square roots</b>. The algorithm works without any memory.
     50       to operation. We happily relieved the historical moment having the <font color="#FF0000"><b>world's only tabulating
     51       machine that can calculate square roots</b></font>. The algorithm works without any memory.
    4352       There is a <a class="go" href="/shared/pdf/wurzelprogramm.pdf">program guide (PDF)</a>
    4453       in German and French.
     
    4958       of the restoration of the tabulating machine</small></p>
    5059
    51     <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
    52         <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-bs-pr/tabelliermaschine.jpg"
    53              width="679" height="658" alt="Bull PS BR Tabulating Machine" />
    54                 <p class="bildtext"><b>Tabulating Machine Bull BS-PR</b></p>
    55     </div>
    56        
    57         <p>
     60 
     61        The control and memory of the machine is comprised of about 1500 relays.
     62        <br/>10 ALUs work in parallel and are driven and synchronized by the large main motor.
     63        Every revolution engages about 300 sliding contacts. In the upper part of the picture
     64        you can see three ALUs. Only one of the ALUs is broken (that can be easily bypassed by
     65        customizing the programs), that is quite astonishing in view of the old age.
     66     
     67   <div class="box left">
     68        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-bs-pr/rechenwerk-1.jpg" alt="Rechenwerk" width="450" height="405" />
     69                <p class="bildtext"><i>Arithmetic-logic unit</i></p>
     70                </div>
     71               
     72                <div class="box right">
     73                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-bs-pr/rechenwerk.jpg" width="398" height="366" />       
     74                </div>
     75        <br>
    5876            With closed walls it looks like a strange chunk made of metal, but it
    5977                comprises impressive electromechanical technology. In the front there
     
    6583                <a href="gamma3.php">"electronical calculator" BULL GAMMA&nbsp;3</a>
    6684                could be attached. That auxiliary tube calculator was only used for this
    67                 purpose.
    68         </p>
    69 
    70     <!--
    71      3 Bilder im Deutschen entfernt nach v5.7.21, zugunsten zwei einzelner.
    72    
    73     <div class="box left">
    74         <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-bs-pr/rechenwerke.jpg" alt="Photography of the ALU" width="357" height="476"/>
    75         <p class="bildtext">
    76             The picture on the left shows the heart of the Bull BS-PR. In the foreground the card sensing circuitry can be seen. Every card is sensed twice &ndash; the first run determines if it is a program or a data card while the second run (below) reads the actual data. In addition to that this mechanism allows the comparison of successive cards.
    77         </p>
    78         <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
    79     </div>
    80 
    81     <div class="box left">
    82         <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-bs-pr/relais.jpg" alt="Partial view of the relays" width="400" height="533" />
    83         <p class="bildtext">
    84           The control and memory of the machine is comprised of about 1500 relays. 10 ALUs work in parallel and are driven and synchronized by the large main motor. Every revolution engages about 300 sliding contacts.
    85         </p>
    86         <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
    87     </div>
    88 
    89     <div class="box left">
    90         <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-bs-pr/offen.jpg" alt="Vorderansicht der geöffneten Bull-Tabelliermaschine" width="569" height="396" />
    91         <p class="bildtext">
    92             The picture on the left shows part of the complicated printing unit &ndash; in every step a complete line is printed (like later line printers did).
    93          </p>
    94          <div class="clear">&nbsp;</div>
    95     </div>
    96     -->
    97    
    98     <div class="box left clear-after">
    99       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-bs-pr/relais1.jpg"
    100            alt="Partial view of the relays" width="312" height="416"/>
    101       <p class="bildtext">
    102         The control and memory of the machine is comprised of about 1500 relays.
    103         <br/>10 ALUs work in parallel and are driven and synchronized by the large main motor.
    104         Every revolution engages about 300 sliding contacts. In the upper part of the picture
    105         you can see three ALUs. Only one of the ALUs is broken (that can be easily bypassed by
    106         customizing the programs), that is quite astonishing in view of the old age.
    107       </p>
    108     </div>
    109 
    110     <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
    111          <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/rechenwerke.jpg" alt="ALUs of the Bull tabulating machine" width="555" height="329" />
    112          <p class="bildtext">
    113                     <b>Arithmetic-logic units</b> of the tabulating machine
    114                  </p>
    115     </div>
     85                purpose.</p><br><br>
     86   
    11687       
    117         <p>     We exposed two of the 10 ALUs for an one-of-a-kind photo. The principle of sprocket wheel
     88        <p>     We exposed one of the 10 ALUs for an one-of-a-kind photo. The principle of sprocket wheel
    11889            machines is visible to the naked eye. All calculation work is performed only by mechanical
    11990            components and read in electronically by touch-sensitive contacts. You can even read out
     
    12394    </p>
    12495   
    125     <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
     96    <div class="box left">
    12697        <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/bull-bs-pr/offen1.jpg"
    12798             alt="Front view of the BULL BS PR Tabulating Machine" width="555" height="325"/>
    12899            <p class="bildtext">
    129                     <b>Printing unit</b> of the tabulating machine
     100                    <i><b>Printing unit</b> of the tabulating machine</i>
    130101                </p>
    131102        </div>
  • physical-computing/index.php

    r1086 r1087  
    6363
    6464<h3>Für Schüler</h3> <br>
    65 In diesem Workshop lernst du das Programmieren von Arduino-Microcontrollern. Wir arbeiten zunächst mit dem "UNO" und später mit dem größeren "MEGA". Im Gegensatz zum Robotik-Workshop in Klasse 6 erfolgt hier die Programmierung in C/C++ bzw. einer stark daran angelehnten Sprache. Vorkenntnisse mit dieser Programmiersprache werden nicht erwartet, jedoch solltest du gerne logisch denken, teamfähig und neugierig sein.
     65In diesem Workshop lernst du das Programmieren von Arduino-Microcontrollern. Wir arbeiten zunächst mit dem "UNO" und später mit dem größeren "MEGA". Im Gegensatz zur grafischen Programmierung im Robotik-Workshop (Klasse 6) erfolgt hier die Programmierung in C/C++ bzw. einer stark daran angelehnten Sprache. Vorkenntnisse mit dieser Programmiersprache werden nicht erwartet, jedoch solltest du gerne logisch denken, teamfähig und neugierig sein.
    6666
    6767<div class="box left">
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