Changeset 219 in t29-www


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Nov 24, 2010, 10:36:53 PM (9 years ago)
Author:
sven
Message:

About 45 user contributions for language improvement of the English homepage. Thank you so much! Unfortunately the system wasn't fully finished at that time (last weekend) so I don't have your names/locations yet :( - so if you read this text and want to be mentioned on the website, just write a mail.

-- sven @ workstation7

Location:
en
Files:
8 edited

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  • en/computer/commercial.shtm

    r184 r219  
    2020    <h2><!--#echo var="title" --></h2>
    2121
    22     <p>In contrast to computers used for scientific applications, commercial data processing systems have a different structure since they are optimized to support large storage systems and to process lots of data like in payroll applications and the like. Sometimes the distinction between scientific and commercial systems is not a clear one. The examples below are typical small to medium systems for commercial applications.</p>
     22    <p>In contrast to computers used for scientific applications, commercial data processing systems have a different structure, since they are optimized to support large storage systems and to process lots of data, as in payroll applications and the like. Sometimes the distinction between scientific and commercial systems is not a clear one. The examples below are typical small to medium systems for commercial applications.</p>
    2323
    2424        <h3>Olivetti P 203</h3>
     
    2626       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/olivetti_p203.jpg" alt="Olivetti P203" width="406" height="378" />
    2727       <div class="bildtext">
    28           <p>In 1968 the Olivetti P 101 with enlarged memory capacity was coupled with an electric type writer which led to a system capable of printing the results of computations directly. This system is of a remarkable design and won quite some prices for Olivetti in its time. The following machines made by Olivetti departed from that and were packaged in simple cubic enclosures.</p>
     28          <p>In 1968 the Olivetti P 101 with enlarged memory capacity was coupled with an electric typewriter which led to a system capable of printing the results of computations directly. This system is of a remarkable design and won quite some prizes for Olivetti in its time. Later machines made by Olivetti departed from that and were packaged in simple cubic enclosures.</p>
    2929        </div>
    3030    </div>
     
    3535        </div>
    3636       
    37     <p>Apart from desktop calculators other small computer systems were introduced to solve commercial problems. The <b>NCR 446</b> on display is a so called accounting machine and consists of a paper tape reader and punch, a keyboard and an IBM selectric typewriter as printer. It was built 1968 in Germany. Due to its core memory and woven ROM the machine is freely programmable and thus very versatile.
     37    <p>Apart from desktop calculators other small computer systems were introduced to solve commercial problems. The <b>NCR 446</b> on display is a so-called accounting machine and consists of a paper tape reader and punch, a keyboard and an IBM Selectric typewriter as printer. It was built 1968 in Germany. Due to its core memory and woven ROM the machine is freely programmable and thus very versatile.
    3838       <br/>Clicking on the picture yields a <href="/en/devices/ncr446.shtm">more detailed picture</a></p>
    3939        <!-- das war B.Ulmann. Meine Übersetzung (alt):
     
    5353        </div>
    5454       
    55         <p>A typical small to medium data processing system is the <b>NIXDORF 820</b> built in 1969/1970. This system is built entirely from modules, has a magnetic account reader and a <a href="storage-media.shtm#Threaded_ROM">threaded ROM</a> which was user modifyable. The console consists of a typewriter, the magnetic account reader and two punch card readers. In addition to this the system supports a card punching unit, a high speed matrix printer (visible on the right), two cassette tape drives and a stand alone card puncher (IBM or YUKI, see above). Clicking on the picture will yield <a class="go" href="/en/devices/nixdorf820.shtm">a more detailed version</a> of it.</p>
     55        <p>A typical small to medium data processing system is the <b>NIXDORF 820</b> built in 1969/1970. This system is built entirely from modules, has a magnetic account reader and a <a href="storage-media.shtm#Threaded_ROM">threaded ROM</a> which was user modifiable. The console consists of a typewriter, the magnetic account reader and two punch card readers. In addition to this the system supports a card punching unit, a high speed matrix printer (visible on the right), two cassette tape drives and a stand alone card puncher (IBM or YUKI, see above). Clicking on the picture will yield <a class="go" href="/en/devices/nixdorf820.shtm">a more detailed version</a> of it.</p>
    5656
    5757</div><!-- end of content -->
  • en/computer/early-computers.shtm

    r213 r219  
    5555            <h3>PDP-8I</h3>
    5656            <p>DEC's first calculator with integrated circuits was not cheap. The CPU on
    57              its own (in the middle of the picture) without periphery costed 27000$ at that time.<br/>
     57             its own (in the middle of the picture) without peripherals cost $27000 at that time.<br/>
    5858             The main memory had a capacity of 8kB. While calculating a "bigger" problem, possibly some files
    5959             (programs, data) had to be swapped on a (magnetic) tape and read in afterwards. DEC developed
     
    6262            <p>If you have not yet seen such a computer, you should know that it is more than 2m high (with
    6363             plotter) and has a weight of more than 300 kg.</p>
    64             <p>The periphery constists of 2 x TU 55 (tape drives), PC 04 (high speed paper tape reader),
     64            <p>The peripherals consist of two TU 55 (tape drives), PC 04 (high speed paper tape reader),
    6565             Calcomp 563 plotter (at the top) and of course a teletype (not in the picture).</p>
    6666        </div>
     
    7272                        <h3 id="pdp12">PDP-12, LAB-12</h3>
    7373                        <p>The PDP-12 was released in 1969. It was the last series that
    74                         could operate in Link modus (it could be switched to either Link-8
     74                        could operate in Link mode (it could be switched to either Link-8
    7575                        or PDP-8). This is a laboratory computer, equipped with AD and DA
    7676                        converter as standard. Such computers were usually kept up to date
    7777                        with hardware updates. The memory of this device was gradually
    7878                        increased from 8kB up to 32kB (DW 08E storage extension).
    79                         <br>Beside the tape drives, the computer was also equipped with
     79                        <br>Besides the tape drives, the computer was also equipped with
    8080                        an 8-inch floppy drive. Afterwards they were removed again in
    8181                        favor of two removable disk drives. Finally they even tied the
    8282                        device to 10BASE-T ethernet, using a selfmade controller with an
    8383                        handwritten TCP/IP stack on a selfmade operating system.
    84                         Thus this device can demonstrate the era of paper tapes until
     84                        Thus this device can demonstrate the era from paper tapes up to
    8585                        today's storage standard.
    86                         <br>We will repair it and report further details at this point.</p>
     86                        <br>We will repair it and report further details at that point.</p>
    8787                </div>
    8888        </div>
     
    9393        <div  class="bildtext">
    9494            <h3>Lab-8e, PDP-8e</h3>
    95             <p>Successor of the PDP-8i was the PDP-8e (1970). This computer had already an
    96              internal bus system. So you could easily attach any periphery with interface cards. This
    97              feature made the "Mini"computer all-purpose. This Computer type was offered with diverse
    98              A/D- and D/A-converters and connection facilities as laboratory computer for analogue
    99              devices (shown in the picture). The periphery is:</p>
     95            <p>The successor of the PDP-8i was the PDP-8e (1970). This computer came with an
     96             internal bus system, so you could easily attach any peripherals using interface cards. This
     97             feature made the "mini"-computer all-purpose. This computer type was offered with diverse
     98             A/D- and D/A-converters and connection facilities as a laboratory computer for analogue
     99             devices (shown in the picture). The peripherals are:</p>
    100100            <ul>
    101101                <li>VR 12 (oscilloscope display)</li>
     
    108108
    109109    <h3>WANG 2200 with bulky peripheral hardware</h3>
    110     <p>Furthermore the first system that looks like a today's computer is connected: <a class="go" href="/en/devices/wang2200.shtm">WANG 2200</a>, year of manufacture 1973. The computer with so much peripheral devices is propably unique in Germany. The periphery: paper tape reader, reader for stacked cards, 8-inch triple disc drive, disc system with 38cm big disks (the device has a weight of 100kg and costed 24.000,- DM whereas it only saved 5MB), special basic-keyboard, etc.</p>
    111     <p>WANG quickly recognized that the future of computers needed screens. However the concurrent HP built his
    112     computers only with a single LED display until 1975.</p>
     110    <p>Next, the first system that looks like today's computer is presented: <a class="go" href="/en/devices/wang2200.shtm">WANG 2200</a>, year of manufacture 1973. This computer, with so many peripheral devices, is probably unique in Germany. The peripherals: paper tape reader, punch card reader,  triple 8-inch disc drive, hard disc system with 38cm diameter disks (the device weights 100kg and cost 24000 DM, but only holdy 5MB), special BASIC-language keyboard, etc.</p>
     111    <p>WANG quickly recognized that the future of computers needed screens. However the concurrent HP
     112    computers had only a single-line LED display until 1975.</p>
    113113
    114114    <div class="box center">
     
    116116    </div>
    117117
    118     <p>The first personal computer was also build by WANG: PCS II (1975). The first PC that was affordable for everybody was the PET 2001 from Commodore. It came on the market in 1977 and was as cheap as a today's PC but saved 8kB and had decent applications. Many more Homepcomputer followed, the market got out of hand and therewith the collection of computers ends.</p>
     118    <p>The first personal computer was also build by WANG: the PCS II (1975). The first PC that was affordable for everybody was the PET 2001 from Commodore. It came on the market in 1977 and was as cheap as today's PCs, but had 8kB and had decent applications. Many more home computers followed, the market got out of hand and therewith this collection of computers ends.</p>
    119119     
    120120     <p>See further details at <a class="go" href="/en/details2.shtm" title="Details 2">the tabular overview of
  • en/computer/electron-tubes.shtm

    r185 r219  
    2727    modern-looking monster features 188 electron tubes and belongs consequently to the first
    2828    generation of calculators. It has a wonderful glowing display. However, the
    29     tube based computer can only compute with the four basic arithmetic operations and
    30     costed the price of a VW beetle and an holiday trip.</p>
     29    tube based computer can only perform the four basic arithmetic operations and
     30    cost as much as a VW Beetle and an holiday trip.</p>
    3131
    3232    <div class="box center auto-bildbreite">
     
    4040       For the first time, you could multiply and divide without mechanics or noise. With a
    4141           3 kHz clock the device calculated ten times faster than the best contemporary
    42            mechanical calculators. Anyway, technically speaken, the device was actually
    43            obsolete in 1962. The calculator works in decimal system, just as every other
    44            mechanical sprocket wheel machine. It still took two years until a transistorized desk
     42           mechanical calculators. Anyway, technically speaking, the device was actually
     43           obsolete in 1962. The calculator works in decimal system, just like
     44           mechanical sprocket wheel machines. It took two more years until a transistorized desk
    4545           calculator (IME 84) came onto the market.
    4646    </p>
     
    5050    <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/anita-innen.jpg" width="694" height="520" alt="Photography of Anita's 'inner life'" />
    5151    <p class="bildtext">
    52         The "nightly" Anita inner life: The thyratrons flow redly, flashing during calculating.
     52        The "nightly" Anita inner life: The thyratrons glow red, flashing during calculations.
    5353    </p>
    5454</div>
     
    5858    <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/anita-anzeige.jpg" width="396" height="268" alt="Anita's display" />
    5959    <p class="bildtext">
    60         This is a part from the numeric display. The gas-filled nixie tubes
    61         (glow lamp's principe) came onto the marktet just in time.
     60        This is part of the numeric display. The gas-filled nixie tubes
     61        (glow lamp principle) came onto the marktet just in time.
    6262    </p>
    6363</div>
     
    6969    <p>
    7070        The upper circuit board contains a ring counter. The gas-filled thyratrons are very small. This
    71         was the only way to place approx. 177 pices into a manageable case. These relay tubes
     71        was the only way to place approx. 177 pieces into a manageable case. These relay tubes
    7272        have only two states like mechanical relays.
    7373        Additionally there are 11 vacuum tubes (ECC 81, left side) built into the calculator.
    7474    </p><p>
    75         The complete counting decade with a nixie tube is shown below.
     75        The lower circuit board is a complete counting decade with a nixie tube.
    7676     </p>
    7777    </div>
  • en/computer/ic-technology.shtm

    r185 r219  
    2121    <h2><!--#echo var="title" --></h2>
    2222
    23       <p>The development of IC-technology 1967/68 came along with the development of
    24       high-perfomance calculators. We have also arrayed the world's most expensive desk calculator:
    25       WANG 700. This device outshined everything other on the market (costed with very extensive
    26       periphery much more than 70.000,-&nbsp;DM or 35.000,-&nbsp;Euro).
    27       Furthermore the first alphanumerically displaying calculator (HP 9820, 1971) and the
     23      <p>With the development of IC-technology 1967/68 brought along with the development of
     24      high-performance calculators. We have also arrayed what was among other things the
     25          world's most expensive desk calculator: the WANG 700. This device outshined everything
     26          else on the market (costing with very extensive
     27      peripherals well over 70000&nbsp;DM or 35000&nbsp;Euro).
     28      Furthermore the first calculator with an alphanumeric display (HP 9820, 1971) and the
    2829      world's first BASIC-programmable desk calculator (HP 9830, 1972) are installed.
    29       With these systems you can marvellously plot function graphes together with its label.
    30       Three years before something like this was unimaginable!
    31       1971 the first scientifically programmable "pocket calculators" with the size of
     30      With these systems you can marvellously plot function graphs together with labels.
     31      Three years before something like that was unimaginable!
     32      In 1971 the first scientifically programmable "pocket calculators" with the size of
    3233      a matchbox came on the market, too.
    3334      See also: <a class="go" href="/en/details1.shtm" title="Details 1">Tabular list of desk calculators</a></p>
  • en/computer/programmable.shtm

    r208 r219  
    2323    <p>Second-generation calculators did not have integrated circuits yet. This made it difficult to build
    2424    efficient calculators, so programmable calculators of that species are technically
    25     especially interesting. Already 1966, DIEHL put such a calculator on the market. The operating
     25    especially interesting. Already in 1966, DIEHL put such a calculator on the market. The operating
    2626    system is "booted" from a metallic paper tape and application programmes are stamped on paper
    2727    tapes that can be read in again. Probably the Stone Age of programmable calculators!
     
    3434       
    3535        <p>
    36         The Combitron is the first operative
    37         programmable desk calculator that was built and selled in Germany. Right you see the DIEHL
    38         Dilector (paper tape reader) and left the DIEHL ELS 830 (paper tape puncher). The system is fully executable.
     36        The Combitron is the first operating programmable desk calculator that was built and
     37                sold in Germany. On the right you can see the DIEHL
     38        Dilector (paper tape reader) and to the left is the DIEHL ELS 830 (paper tape puncher). The system is fully operational.
    3939        The <a href="storage-media.shtm#delay-line-memory" class="go">delay line memory</a> serves as storage media
    40         (capacity ca. 1000 Bit).</p>
     40        (capacity ca. 1000 bits).</p>
    4141    </p>
    4242       
    4343        <h3>Olivetti Programma 101</h3>
    4444
    45     <p>In the same year the Olivetti Programma 101 came onto the market. For the first time in the
     45    <p>In the same year the Olivetti Programma 101 came onto the market. For the first time in
    4646    EDP history, engineering offices were able to buy a "small" calculator on which you could
    47     quickly save own programmes on magnetic cards. This machine with many mechanics got a big seller.
    48     However, the device was very expensive,
    49     but the price of 14800,- DM + fees (ca. 8000 Euro) paid for itself because
    50     of many saved manual calculating time.</p>
     47    quickly save own programs on magnetic cards. This machine with many mechanical parts, became
     48        a big seller.  However, the device was very expensive, but the price of 14800 DM + fees
     49        (ca. 8000 Euro) paid for itself in saved manual calculating time.</p>
    5150
    5251    <div class="box left clear-after">
    5352       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/olivetti_programma101.jpg" alt="Programma 101" width="379" height="301" />
    54        <p class="bildtext">The legendary <b>PROGRAMMA 101</b> by Olivetti. In the middle you see the magnetic program card. The <a class="go" href="storage-media.shtm#delay-line-memory">delay line memory</a> was used as storage media.</p>
     53       <p class="bildtext">The legendary <b>PROGRAMMA 101</b> by Olivetti. In the middle you see the magnetic program card. <a class="go" href="storage-media.shtm#delay-line-memory">Delay line memory</a> was used as storage media.</p>
    5554    </div>
    5655
     
    6362        </div>
    6463
    65         <p>     In 1966/1967 the WANG 320 SE was a flag ship calculator. Two of its features were truly sensational for its time: It could calculate quickly logarithms and anti-logarithms (in fact this took less time than the calcultion of a square root) and up to four keyboards could be connected to a single calculator unit thus the machine was in fact a time sharing system. Further more the system could be programmed using punched cards &ndash; running programs were suspended for a short period of time to allow interactive users access to the machine. The 80 column punched cards could be prepared manually  using a stencil. These features made the calcultar a perfect match for schools and universities. While the slide rule was in use in most of these places thismachine allowed them to enter the field of computer science. <br/>
     64        <p>     In 1966/1967 the WANG 320 SE was a flagship calculator. Two of its features were truly sensational for its time: It could calculate logarithms and anti-logarithms quickly (in fact this took less time than the calcultion of a square root) and up to four keyboards could be connected to a single calculator unit; thus the machine was in fact a time sharing system. Further more the system could be programmed using punched cards &ndash; running programs were suspended for a short period of time to allow interactive users access to the machine. The 80 column punched cards could be prepared manually  using a stencil. These features made the calculator a perfect match for schools and universities. While the slide rule was in use in most of these places, this machine allowed them to enter the field of computer science. <br/>
    6665            Clicking on the picture will show a <a class="go" href="/en/devices/wang320.shtm">larger and more detailed version</a>.
    6766    </p>
  • en/computer/storage-media.shtm

    r184 r219  
    111111       
    112112    <p>During the years the capacity of core memory devices was increased more and more while the dimensions were shrinked accordingly. This picture shows a core memory plane made in the time frame 1975 - 1978. The area shown equals
    113        that of the 144 bit memory by Triumph shown earlier. Now there are more then 16000 cores on the same area. The individual cores can only be seen with the aid of a magnifying glass. The whole core memory block contains 16 planes like this containing more then 256000 single cores (this is equivalent to 32 kB of data) occupying a volume of about 2.5 cubic decimeters. This device marks the end of the era of core memory.</p>
     113       that of the 144 bit memory by Triumph shown earlier. Now there are more than 16000 cores on the same area. The individual cores can only be seen with the aid of a magnifying glass. The whole core memory block contains 16 planes like this containing more than 256000 single cores (this is equivalent to 32 kB of data) occupying a volume of about 2.5 cubic decimeters. This device marks the end of the era of core memory.</p>
    114114
    115115    <p>The smaller the individual cores the faster the access time &ndash; this device features an access time of only 200 ns. One drawback of core memory is that reading the information stored in a row of cores destroys the information. So every read access has to be followed by a write access to retain the information (reading from a core memory takes more time than writing to the memory which is a rather unique "feature" of this technology).</p>
     
    154154       <p>While research and development in the Goddard Space Flight Center of the US space
    155155          program, NASA, the american government closed a deal with UNIVAC to develop a
    156           storage medium with a total input power less then 1 Watt, non-destructive readout
     156          storage medium with a total input power less than 1 Watt, non-destructive readout
    157157          (that is, no more neccessarity to write the informations after reading them),
    158158          high capacity, low cycle time and functionality in a temperature range from
    159159          -20° C to +50°C (-4°F to 122°F).
    160           <br/>In this way the plated wire storage was developed, based on a cuple of
     160          <br/>In this way the plated wire storage was developed, based on a couple of
    161161          genious ideas. Unfortunately, nowadays it is very error-prone.</p>
    162162       <p>Clicking on the photography will yield further informations about the
     
    170170       <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/speichermedien/lochband-combitron.jpg" alt="A two channel punched tape from the DIEHL combitron calculator" width="424" height="322" />
    171171       <p class="bildtext">
    172            As already described before (section <a class="go" href="programmable.shtm">programmable 2nd generation desktop calculators</a>), the DIEHL Combitron calculator used a time delay memory (like the magnetostrictive memory described elsewhere). Since this type of memory is volatily, DIEHL needed a non-volatile memory for the overall control of the machine. This had been implemented using a two channel punched tape. The first channel serves as a clock channel while the second channel contains the actual control data.
     172           As already described before (section <a class="go" href="programmable.shtm">programmable 2nd generation desktop calculators</a>), the DIEHL Combitron calculator used a time delay memory (like the magnetostrictive memory described elsewhere). Since this type of memory is volatile, DIEHL needed a non-volatile memory for the overall control of the machine. This had been implemented using a two channel punched tape. The first channel serves as a clock channel while the second channel contains the actual control data.
    173173           <br/>During the startup of the calculator, the contents of this punched tape were copied to the time delay memory which then took over control of the machine.
    174174        </p>
  • en/computer/transistors.shtm

    r185 r219  
    2727           After the <a href="/en/computer/electron-tubes.shtm">ANITA tube calculator</a>,
    2828           the development of transistorised second-generation calculators began. Due to the
    29            increasing number of users, the development was very lucrative, even facing the
     29           increasing number of users, the development was very lucrative, even considering the
    3030           enormous costs.
    31            <br>Every company that released a device designed completely another architecture.
    32            Soon afterwards, many different concepts emerged. The following devices are a
     31           <br>Every company that released a device designed a completely new architecture.
     32           Many different concepts emerged. The following devices are a
    3333           selection of very early devices (year of manufacture 1964-1965).
    3434        </p>
     
    3939        <p class="bildtext">
    4040                   <b>IME 84</b> (<i>Industria Macchine Elettroniche</i>) was the world's first
    41                    desk calculator using transistors. This was an enormous progress, compared to the ANITA.
    42            Using a <a href="/en/computer/storage-media.shtm#Core_memory">core memory</a>, there was
     41                   desk calculator using transistors. This represented enormous progress, compared to the ANITA.
     42           Using <a href="/en/computer/storage-media.shtm#Core_memory">core memory</a>, there was
    4343                   much more memory, allowing many more application fields.
    4444           <br>This calculator is at least able to exponentiate a number, but it cannot yet extract
    4545                   a root.
    46                    <br>The design of this device is quite appealing. In comparisation, the german device made
    47                    by Olympia looks ungracefully.
     46                   <br>The design of this device is quite appealing. In comparison, the German device made
     47                   by Olympia looks ungraceful.
    4848                </p>
    4949    </div>
     
    5353                   The device has a strange interface on the left side to connect the <b>ROBOX 103</b>
    5454                   (see picture on the left). Using this small device, one could enter numbers much faster.
    55                    Turing the switch to "Addition" enables auto-addding the number just entered after a short
    56                    timeout. This yields the great disadvantage: If the operator was too slow (or made some
    57                    short break), only parts are taken over in the memory, without any response. Thus the complete
     55                   Turning the switch to "Addition" enables auto-adding the number just entered after a short
     56                   timeout. This yields a great disadvantage: If the operator was too slow (or made some
     57                   short break), only parts were taken in the memory, without any feedback. Thus the complete
    5858                   calculation was error-prone. The successor "IME 86" therefore didn't feature an ROBOX
    5959                   interface any more.
     
    6666                <img src="/shared/photos/rechnertechnik/canola-display.jpg" alt="Canola 130 display macro photography" width="148" height="138" />
    6767                <p class="bildtext">
    68                         In 1964, Canon built the first electronical desk calculator of Japan, using germanium transistors
    69                         and flip flop memories. Optically it looks like a prototype.
    70                         The whole back of the device consists of very big boards. They are not stucked, but soldered, at the
     68                        In 1964, Canon built the first Japanese electronic desk calculator, using germanium transistors
     69                        and flip-flop memories. Visually it looks like a prototype.
     70                        The whole back of the device consists of very big boards. They are not plugged in, but soldered, at the
    7171                        cost of ease of service. This was typical for the year 1964, when companies tried to get their device
    72                         as fast as possible on the global market.
     72                        onto the global market.
    7373                        <br>The display is remarkable. Instead of using Nixie tubes, the device features 143 lamps and a lot of
    7474                        light conductors to create digits and the decimal point. The only advantage of this technology over
     
    8484
    8585        <p>
    86             The <b>Olympia-Werke AG</b> (Germany) invented the "Elektronischen Vierspezies-Rechenautomat" (electronical
     86            The <b>Olympia-Werke AG</b> (Germany) invented the "Elektronischen Vierspezies-Rechenautomat" (electronic
    8787                calculator for adding, substracting, multiplying and dividing). The distinctive feature was floating point
    8888                arithmetic, 3 ALUs, 1 storage unit and 3 "memory units" (3 random use registers).
    89                 The device contains a 384 bit manually threaded core memory, Germanium transistors and Nixie tubes, but no
     89                The device contains a 384 bit manually threaded core memory, germanium transistors and Nixie tubes, but no
    9090                external interface. Therefore users could not store or load programs. Olympia missed this important step,
    91                 thus the calculator became obsolete soon. The design was also quite outdated - the device turns yellow
     91                so the calculator became obsolete soon. The design was also quite outdated, and the device turns yellow
    9292                quickly in the sun.
    93         <br>The same device was reselled in the USA by <b>Monroe</b> with the type number 770.
     93        <br>The same device was resold in the USA by <b>Monroe</b> with the model number 770.
    9494        </p>
    9595        <p>
    9696            The legendary <b>WANDERER-WERKE AG</b> were a typical company specialized on office machines and launched
    97                 the WANDERER CONTI in 1965. You can read the original prospect of the <a class="go" href="/en/devices/wanderer_conti.shtm"
    98                 title="Wanderer Conti original brochure">"first printing electonic universal automate"</a>. This leading role
    99                 did only last for some weeks, since Olivetty and Diehl continuously followed.
     97                the WANDERER CONTI in 1965. You can read the original prospectus <!--sic--> of the <a class="go" href="/en/devices/wanderer_conti.shtm"
     98                title="Wanderer Conti original brochure">"first printing electonic universal automaton"</a>. This leading role
     99                did only lasted for a few weeks, since Olivetti and Diehl followed close behind.
    100100        </p>
    101101
     
    113113        </div>
    114114        <p>
    115             The american <b>Friden Calculating Machine Company</b> was already pioneer in desk
    116                 calculation technology: In the mid-50s they built the first mechanical calculator
    117                 in series that was able to extract a root.
     115            The American <b>Friden Calculating Machine Company</b> was already a pioneer in desk
     116                calculator technology: in the mid-50s they built the first mechanical calculator in series
     117                that was able to extract a root.
    118118        </p>
    119119        <div class="box left clear-after">
     
    121121                <p class="bildtext">
    122122                    The <b>FRIDEN 130</b> was announced in 1964. It was the first desktop calculator featuring a
    123                     CRT display using an oscillocope tube to display the contents of four internal registers of the machine.
     123                    CRT display, using an oscillocope tube to display the contents of four internal registers of the machine.
    124124                The memory is based on a <a class="go" href="storage-media.shtm#Magnetostrictive_memory">magnetostrictive line</a>.
    125125            <br />The overall design of the calculator is quite futuristic - the machine might well be found in
    126126                    a space travel movie of that time. The smallest model featuring only the four basic arithmetic
    127127                    operations was sold for about 5000 DM while the larger model, the FRIDEN 132, which included a
    128                     square root function was priced at 6700 DM.
     128                    square root function, was priced at 6700 DM.
    129129                </p>
    130130    </div>
  • en/devices/dec-history.shtm

    r206 r219  
    3434            <br/>In August 1957, he founded a small company with three collaborators. He named the new company <em>Digital Equipment Corporation</em>. This name was chosen to obscure his real targets. The big and well-established enterprises like IBM should think that DEC just builds auxillary devices.</p>
    3535
    36     <p>Three years later, in 1960, Digital presented the first commercial interactive "mini" computer. This was the first PDP system (Programmable Data Processor). It used a word length of 18 bit and costed approx. 120.000 US$. Digital selled only 53 units.</p>
     36    <p>Three years later, in 1960, Digital presented the first commercial interactive "mini" computer. This was the first PDP system (Programmable Data Processor). It used a word length of 18 bit and costed approx. US$ 120,000. Digital selled only 53 units.</p>
    3737
    38         <p>The begin of mass producing mini computers represents the next milestone. In 1965 Digital presented this first mass produced PDP, called PDP-8. It was sensationally cheap and costed only 18.000 US$.
     38        <p>The begin of mass producing mini computers represents the next milestone. In 1965 Digital presented this first mass produced PDP, called PDP-8. It was sensationally cheap and costed only US$ 18,000.
    3939           <br/>Successors of this hit series were the PDP 8I (1967, first computer featuring TTL ICs), PDP 8L (1968, low cost version), PDP 8e (1970, first computer with bus system), later on the PDP 8a and DEC Mate Systems were produced.</p>
    4040
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